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napoleoni rogorc psiqologi
 
 

prof. dimitri ciskariSvili
saqarTvelos napoleonis sazogadoeba
 
 
 

 omi, ra Tqma unda, saSinelebaa, magram igi kacobriobis samwuxaro aucileblobaao, ambobda meore msoflio omisdroindeli amerikeli generali omar bredli. saubedurod, Cans rom es marTlac asea. xolo Tu es ase ar aris, maSin rogor moxda, rom im xuTi aTasi wlidan rac Segnebuli kacobrioba arsebobs, mSvidobiani sul ramdenime aTeuli Tu moiZebneba? isic, ra darCeba am wlebidan Tu aRricxul omebs, Tundac mogvianebiT aRmoCenil kontinentebze mZvinvare sisxlisRvrebs mivumatebT? ase rom, omi kacobriobis Tanamgzavria, yovel SemTxvevaSi, jerjerobiT.


asea Tu ise, oms Tavisi kanonebi aqvs. mas gaZRola da warmarTva sWirdeba, radgan omi ukontrolo brboebs Soris atexili uwesrigo xocva-Jletva ki ar aris, aramed adamianTa organizebul, gawvrTnil da erTian xelmZRvanelobas daqvemdebarebul armiul SenaerTTa Soris mimdinare gegmiuri Sejaxebaa.


armiad Camoyalibebas, erTad TavSeyrili xalxis organziebul nawilebad qcevas mTeli rigi faqtorebi sWirdeba, kerZod:disciplina, specialuri momzadeba da gawvrTna, samxedro saqmeSi daostateba meTaurTa piradi magaliTi, zrunva jariskacebze da sxva. e.i. yvelaferi is, rac jaris fsiqologiuri momzadebis xarisxs gansazRvravs. vinaidan omi mxolod ganyenebuli da abstraqtuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Setakeba ki ar aris, aramed grZnobebisa da vnebebis Setakebacaa; omSi monawilis fsiqologiur mdgomareobas, mis moralur simtkices gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeb.
amis mkafio dadastureba napoleonis ganTqmuli aforizmia:~sulieri Zala ise Seefardeba fizikurs, rogorc sami erTs!~


cxadia, es aforizmi marto samxedro saqmes ar Seexeba da igi yofierebis nebismier sferoze SeiZleba gavrceldes. Tumca Tavad imperatorma igi, ra Tqma unda, Tavis sisxlxorceuls - samxedro saqmes daukavSira. es rom asea, TviT im ganmartebidan Cans, romelic am aforizms Tavad avtorma misca:~erTi jariskaci maRali moraluri suliskveTebiT sam sxvas jobia, romelTac es suliskveTeba ar gaaCniaT~.


sxvaTaSoris, es dResav asea da magaliTebis saZebnad Sors wasvla ar dagvWirdeba.
fsiqologiuri faqtoris gaTvaliswineba da omSi misi moxerxebulad gamoyeneba napoleonis samxedro moRvaweobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi mxarea. ra Tqma unda, korsikeli ar iyo pirveli, vinc fsiqologiur faqtors miaqcia yuradReba, magram igi udavod pirveli iyo, vinc Rrmad Cawvda am faqtoris mniSvnelobas da manamde arnaxul simaRleze aiyvana igi.
jariskacis fsiqologiis codna da jariskacze moraluri zemoqmedebis unari bonapartma ukve pirvelive brZolaSi, tulonis garemocvaSi gamoavlina, Tavisi sabrZolo naTlobis dros. es faqti imaze miuTiTebs, rom axalgazrda meTaurs samxedro saqmis es mxarec ar dautovebia uyuradRebod da Tavis droze Rrmad Seuswavlia igi.


~tulonis SemTxveva~ maSin didad ar gaxmaurebula. mxolod mogvianebiT, roca aseTi SemTxvevebi momravlda da sistematiuri xasiaTi miiRo, gamoirkva, rom igi axalgazrda meTauris SemTxveviTi migneba ki ara, aramed kargad mofiqrebuli da winaswar momzadebuli moqmedeba iyo. saqme bonapartis mier ganxorcielebul erT fsiqologiur xerxs Seexeba.


tulonis simagris gadamwyveti ieriSis mzadebis periodSi, bonapartma erTi metad moxerxebuli, magram aseve metad saxifaTo adgili SearCia, da iq saartilerio batareis gamarTva brZana. wamowyebis sirTule imaSi mdgomareobda, rom am batareisaTvis mowinaaRmdegesac SeeZlo Zlieri cecxlis gaexsna da didad daezaralebina kidec. Znelad, rom vinmes am cecxlisaTvis gaeZlo. axalgazrda meTaurma gaiTvaliswina es garemoeba da RamiT, batareis gawyobasTan erTad, mis ukan, sakuTari da mowinaaRmdegis armiebis dasanaxavad didi transparanti aRamarTvina warweriT:~uSiSarTa batarea~.


gaTeniisas orive mxarem intensiuri srola daiwyo. pretenziuli warweriT gulmocemulma da siamayis grZnobiT aRvsilma frangma artileristebma saxifaTo adgilidan fexi ar moicvales da manamde gaagrZeles srola, sanam mowinaaRmdegem ukan ar daixia. mizani miRweuli iyo.
axalgazrda bonapartis es uCveulo nabiji adamianis xasiaTis Taviseburebebis codnis maCvenebeli iyo da fsiqologiis sakiTxebSi mis ganswavlulobaze metyvelebda. SemdgomSi, misi xangrZlivi da mdidari samxedro karieris manZilze, aseTi ostaturi fsiqologiuri svlebi xSiri gaxda. iTvaliswinebda ra im gansakuTrebul mdgomareobas, romelSic adamiani omis dros imyofeba, napoleons aucileblad miaCnda jariskacis fsiqikaze iseTi zemoqmedebis moxdena, romelic mis sulier Zalebze imoqmedebda da mis moralur mdgomareobas gaaumjobesebda.


Tavisi fsiqologiuri svlebis ganxorcielebisas, napoleoni iTvaliswinebda im garemoebas, rom samxedro samsaxuri Zneli samsaxuria; rom aTkecad Zneli da saSiSi xdeba igi omis pirobebSi, rodesac sisxli iRvreba da garSemo ngreva da sikvdilia, rom aseT dros adamians sulieri Zalebis ukiduresi daZabva uxdeba.


im mraval emociur faqtorTagan, romelic omis monawileze moqmedebs, mTavari mainc SiSia. SiSi mosalodneli gansacdeliT gamowveuli emociaa da omis pirobebSi xSirad igi warmarTavs uneburad adamianis, wikiTxe, jariskacis saqciels. meTauris amocana swored is aris, rom man rogorme moaxerxos Tavis mebrZoleebSi am fsiqologiuri barieris gadalaxva. zemoT Cven aRvniSneT, rom fsiqologiuri problemis mogvarebis gzaze  ramdenime faqtors aqvs mniSvneloba. erTi umTavresTagani samxedro disciplinaa. aq ar SevudgebiT misi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb saubars, es isedac naTelia, mxolod aRvniSnavT, rom disciplinis ganmtkicebas napoleoni udides yuradRebas uTmobda da Tavis xelqveiTebisagan ganuxerelad moiTxovda mis mtkice dacvas.


amave, dros Tu saqmes sWirdeboda, wesdebis formalur Sesrulebas is TviTmiznad ar aqcevda. Tu garkveuli TvalsazrisiT da pirvel rigSi fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT, zogierTi disciplinarul darRvevaze wasvla ufro momgebiani Canda, vidre misi formaluri dacva, is uyoymanod midioda am darRvevaze. aseT magaliTad Semdegi metad efeqturi fsiqologiuri svla gamodgeba.


erTxel, Tovlian da yinvian Rames, banakidan sakmaod moSorebuli saguSagoebis Semowmebisas napoleoni postze CaZinebul jariskacs waawyda. yvelasaTvis naTeli iyo Tu ra unda gaekeTebina mTavarsardals - saswrafod daepatimrebina disciplinis uxeSi damrRvevi da gadaeca samxedro tribunalisaTvis, romelic, rasakvirvelia, daxvretda mas. ase moiqceoda yvela. magram ase ar moqceula napoleoni. man aiRo CaZinebuli guSagis Tofi da mis nacvlad TviTon dadga sadarajoze. roca garkveuli drois Semdeg cvla movida, yvelam gaocebisagan piri daaRo:guSags tkbilad eZina, xolo mis nacvlad, misi TofiT, saguSagoze imperatori idga ! ambavi, cxadia, elvis siswrafiT moedo mTels armias. yvela aRtacebuli iyo mTavarsardlis saqcieliT. da ara imitom, rom man aSkara damnaSaves apatia, aramed imitom, rom imperatorma gaiTvaliswina jariskacis mZime xvedri, angariSi gauwia mis usazRvro daRlilobas da piradad SeeSvela gasaWirSi. ai swored aseT reaqcias eloda napoleoni, rodesac egzom uCveulo nabijs dgamda.
iyo Tu ara imperatoris es saqcieli gamiznuli TamaSi? rasakvirvelia. magram es iyo iseTi ostaturi TamaSi, romelic didad waadgeboda saqmes.
Tu ra Sedegebi mohqonda napoleonis fsiqologiur svlebs, Tu ra gavlenas axdendnen isini meomarTa sulier mdgomareobaze kargad Cans oficer martenis mogonebidan:~laifcigis jojoxeTuri Serkinebis win imperatorma sabrZolo droSebi dagviriga da mogviwoda davxociliyaviT, magram mtrisaTcvis ar Cagvebarebina isini. Cems mexsierebidan arasodes amoiSleba misi momarTvis daskvniTi nawili, roca igi uzangebze wamoiwia, xeli Cvensken gamoiSvira da saSineli xmiT daiZaxa:SemomficeT, rom ase iqneba ! da uceb, yvela CvenTagans, meca da Cems TanamebrZoleebsac, raRacam aRmogvaxeTqina erTdrouli yiJina:vficavarT, vficavarT,  imperators ! TvalTagan cremli Camogvdioda, TiTqmis verafers vxedavdiT, guli ki siamayiTa da simamaciT gvevseboda ! RmerTo, ra Zala hqonda am adamians . . . ~


fsiqologiuri gaTvlis gansacvifrebeli unari gamoavlina bonapartma italiaSi saomari moqmedebis periodSi e.w. alvincis pirveli laSqrois dros.
axalgazrda mTavarsadrlis moqmedeba imdenad StambeWdavia, rom aucilebelad migvaCnia masze cota meti xniT SeCereba.


gavixsenoT ra periodzea saubari. qalaq mantuaSi garemoculi garnizonisa da feldmarSal vurmzeris armiis narCenebis gamosaxsnelad, avtrielTa umaRlesma sardlobam CrdiloeT italiaSi gagzavna iozef alvincis armia, romelmac ori koloniT daiwyo moZraoba. erTi, general davidoviCis meTaurobiT gardis tbas mouyveboda samxreTisaken da oci aTas jariskacs iTvlida, meore kolona general kvaJdanoviCis meTaurobiT 30 aTasi jariskacisagan Sedgeboda da basanoze gavliT qalaq veronisaken miemarTeboda. avstrielTa Setevas saerTo xelmZRvanelobas uwevda friad gamocdili mxedarTufrosi feldmarSali alvinci. orive Semtevi kolona swored veronasTan unda SeerTeboda erTmaneTs.


avstrielTa 50 aTasian armias frangTa 32 aTasi jariskaci upirispirdeboda, magram bonaparts jaris arc es raodenoba SeeZlo gamoeyvana brZolis velze, vinaidan 9 aTasi meomari kilmenis meTaurobiT qalaq mantuas garemocviT iyo dakavebuli da vurmzers adevnebda Tvalyurs.
rogorc ki avstrielTa Setevis Sesaxeb miiRo cnoba, bonapartma dauyonebliv ubrZana general vobuas Tavisi diviziiT win aRdgomoda davidoviCs da Tu mis ukugdebas ver SeZlebda, is mainc unda moexerxebina rom trientisa an roveretos midamoebSi rogorme SeeCerebina mowinaaRmdegege.
TviTon bonaparti apirebda oJerosa da masenas diviziebiT avstrielTa ZiriTadi kolonisaTvis dartymas, xolo Semdgom  davidoviCze Setevas CrdiloeTidan. magram, am gemas ganxorcieleba ar ewera. jer erTi imitom, rom vobuam ver SeZlo davidoviCis Warbi Zalebis SeCereba, xolo meorec, imitom, rom miuxedavad Seupovari winaaRmdegobisa, verc bonapartma SeZlo alvincis agreTve Warbi Zalebis SeCereba jer basanosTan, mere ki koldierosTan.


saqmes Zalzed arTulebda is garemoeba, rom mantuaSi alyaSemortymul vurmzers SeeZlo cixesimagridan gamoeyvana Tavisi 20 aTasi kariskaci, ukuegdo kilmeni Tavisi 9 aTasi kaciT da Semdeg avstrielTa or kolonas samxreT- dasavleTidan miSveleboda.


Seiqmna uaRresad kritikuli mdgomareoba. avsitrieTa romeli dajgufebis winaaRmdegac ar unda miemarTa Tavisi Zalisxmeva napoleons, mis zurgSi aucileblad aRmoCndeboda mowinaaRmdegis erTi an ori SenaerTi. mdgomareoba sruliad gamouvali Canda.


aseT umZimes viTarebaSi bonapartma paradoqsuli gadawyvetileba miiRo.  man miznad  daisaxa koldieros Zlier poziciebze gamagrebuli avstrielTa mTavari Zalis - alvincis SenaerTis zurgidan Semosvla !
ras emyareboda frangTa mTavarsardalis es swrafad SemuSavebuli gegma ? mxolod da mxolod fsiqologiur faqtorebs. sxvagvarad, mowinaaRmdegis aseTi simravlisa da xelsayreli dislokaciis pirobebSi, garSemovlis operaciis ganxorcieleba ki ara, masze gafiqrebac ki SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
imisaTvis rom avstrielTa zurgSi gasuliyo, bonaparts aucileblad dasWirdeboda mdinare adijes gadalaxva. rasakvirevlia, alvinci miiRebda frangTa gamowvevas da xels SeuSlida maT rogorc mdinaris forsirebaSi, ise placdarmis dakavebaSi. amitom aseT pirobebSi operacia generalur brZolaSi gadaizrdeboda, risTvisac napoleons rac SeiZleba meti jarisTvis unda moeyara Tavi. magram sad unda eSova frangTa mTavarsardals es jari ? da ai swored aq amuSavda is fsiqologiuri faqtorebi, romlebic ase marjved gaiTvaliswina korsikelma.


bonapartma icoda, rom avstrielTa dasavleTis kolonis meTauri davidoviCi bunebiT frTxili kaci iyo da gadamwyvet gadawyvetilebebs swrafad ar iRebda. amaSi bonaparti agvisto-seqtembris SetakebebSi darwmunda, rodesac vurmzeris winaaRmdeg uxdeboda brZola.


frangTa mTavarsardalma ivarauda is rom, rom davidoviCi arc axla gamoiCebda did gambedaobas, ar miatovebda  naadrevad Tavis poziciebs da ar Seecdeboda bonapartis zurgSi gasvlas.


amitom korsikels SeeZlo vobuas diviziidan jaris erTi nawilis farulad wamoyvana da ZiriTad ZalebTan SeerTeba.


bonapartma ivarauda isic, rom mis mier orjer sastikad damarcxebuli da mantuis cixe-simagreSi Seketili vurmzeric ar miatovebda safars da vidre ueWveli warmatebis garantia ar eqneboda, iqidan fexs ar moicvlida. Tu es ase iyo, maSin bonaparts SeeZlo mantuis moalye jaridan, aseve farulad, wamoeyvana mniSvnelovani nawili da isic Tavisi mTavari ZalebisTvis miierTebina.


da bolos, bonapartma ivarauda, rom feldmarSali alvinci, ver gadalaxavda avstriul samxedro moRvaweTa tradiciul SiSs TavianTi flangebis garSemovlis safrTxis winaSe da datovebda koldieros uZlieres poziciebs.
yvelaferi zustad ase moxda - gamarTlda bonapartis varaudebi:arc davidoviCs moucvlia fexi Tavis poziciidan, arc vurmzeris ucdia mantuidan gamosvla da arc alvinci darCenila gulgrili frangTa garsSemovliTi manevris mimarT.


Sedegi arkoles ganTqmuli brZola, romelic frangTa mTavarsardalma didi ostatobiT warmarTa da Sors ukuagdo avstrielTa mTavari SenaerTi, ris Semdeg  davidoviCis kolonas miubrunda da axla masTan ~gaaswora angariSi~.
samxedro specialistebi, romlebic napoleonis laSqrobebs ikvlevdnen, erTxmad aRniSnavdnen, rom misi araCveulebrivi gadawyvetileba gadaelaxa mdinare adije da uaRresad saxifaTo viTarebaSi mowinaaRmdegis mTavari Zalebis garSemovlis manevri Seesrulebina - erTaerTi swori iyoo. Cveni azriT ki, albaT, erTaderTic ar iyo, aramed raRac sxva, iseTi, romelic aRricxvas ar eqvemdebareba da mxolod geniosis ~genetikurad daprogramebul tvinSi~ Tu gaielvebs xolme.


mowinaaRmdegeze fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis ubadlo nimuSia napoleonis moqmedeba 1805 wlis kampaniis daskvniT etapze, rodesac mowinaaRmdeges didi damxmare Zalebi moudioda, romelTa win aRdgoma mxolod dauyoneblivi generaluri brZolis gamarTviT SeiZleboda. am mizniT napoleonma mTeli fsiqologiuri speqtakli dadga, riTic SecdomaSi Seiyvana ruseTisa da avstriis armiaTa mTavarsardloba daarwmuna ra igi Tavis viTomda uZlurobaSi, naadrevad daawyebina Seteva da sabolood gaanadgura brZolaSi, romelsac austerlicis brZola ewoda. komentarebi albaT saWiro ar aris.


fsiqologiuri gaTvlis kidev erT STambeWdav nimuSs warmoadgens napoleonis moqmedeba misi ukanaskneli, e.w. belgiis kampaniis mzadebis procesSi.
imperatori ar daeloda mokavSireTa milioniani armiis intervencias da gadawyvita TviTon gadasuliyo Setevaze safrangeTTan yvelaze axlomdebare inglisur-prusiuli dajgufebis winaaRmdeg. mowinaaRmdegis ori armia, romelic saerTo raodenobiT lamis orjer aRemateboda napoleonisas, erTmaneTTan axlos ki iyo ganlagebuli, magram maT Soris mainc rCeboda Sarleruas derefani, romlis swrafad gavlas esrafeboda imperatori. rogorc yovelTvis, igi mowinaaRmdegeTa cal calke ganadgurebas gegmavda da amitom mis amocanaSi Sedioda SeZlebisdagvarad swarafad Cabmuliyo brZolaSi erT-erT maTganTan, Tanac ise, rom meores ver moeswro pirvelTan gaerTianeba. ai, swored aq iyo ~ZaRlis Tavi~ damarxuli. romeli dajgufebisaTvis unda daertya napoleons?


mowinaaRmdegeTa mTavarsardlebis fsiqologiis  gaTvaliswinebiT imperatorma uSecdomo gadawyvetileba miiRo. man gaiTvaliswina bliuxeris xasiaTi - ficxi germaneli mudam sabrZolvelad iyo SemarTuli da axlac ar uRalatebda Tavis Tavs: igi ar daelodeboda velingtons da mowinaaRmdegis gamoCenisTanave brZolaSi Caebmeboda. napoleonsac es undoda. Sedegi prusielTa mZime damarcxeba linisTan.


napoleoni, rom sxvagvarad moqceuliyo da Tavisi dartyma velingtonisaken miemarTa, es ukanakskneli brZolas Tavs aridebda, prusielebTan SeerTebis gzebs dauwyebda Zebnas, bolos gaerTiandeboda maTTan da frangebisaTvis strategiulad wamgeb situacias Seqmnida.


fsiqologiurma gaTvlam aqac kargi samsaxuri gauwia imperators, xolo is, rom belgiis kampania mainc marcxiT dasrulda da mas napoleonis saboloo gadadgoma mohyva, sul sxva garemoebaTa Sedegi iyo da napoleonis fsiqologiur gaTvlebTan saerTo araferi hqonda.


jariskacze da saerTod, jarze fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis TvalsazrisiT, napoleons Zalze mniSvnelovnad miaCnda meTauris piradi magaliTi. mis armiaSi mamaci meTaurebis nakleboba arasodes SeimCneoda da am mxriv imperators problemebi namdvilad ar uCndeboda. magram zogierT sapasuxismgeblo, SeiZleba iTqvas, kritikul momentSi igi saWirod Tvlida raime sagangebo, gansakuTrebuli zomebis miRebas.


ase, magaliTad, fridlandis brZolis dros, roca saWiro iyo Seupovrad mebrZoli rusis jaris marcxena frTis garRveva mowinaaRmdegis masirebuli cecxlis qveS, napoleonma es uaRresad saSiSi davaleba simamaciT ganTqmul marSal neis daavala. ~mamacTa Soris umamacess~, rogor neis TviTon napoleoni uwodebda, yoymani ar Cveoda da, albaT, isedac Tavdauzogavad Seudgeboda am rTuli amocanis Sesrulebas, magram imperatorma saWirod CaTvala damatebiTi fsiqologiuri muxti mieca misTvis.


vnaxoT ra moimoqmeda napolenma:man neis mklavSi xeli moavlo, Tvali Tvals gauyara da mxolod karga xnis pauzis Semdeg misca davaleba (aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom bonaparts hipnozis unari gaaCnda !) roca marSali Setrialda da Tavis korpusisaken gaemarTa, napoleonma garkveviT, ise rom neisac gaegona, garemomcvelT uTxra:~erTi SexedeT am loms !~
albaT Zneli mosaxvedri araa Tu ras moimoqmedebda yovelive amis Semdeg es lomi. Tumca mixvedrac ar aris saWiro - pasuxi TviT fridlandis brZolis SedegSia.


piradad uaRresad mamaci da uSiSari kaci, napoleoni Tvlida, rom mTavarsardali aucileblad unda ufrTxildebodes Tavis sicocxles, radgan misi sikvdilis SemTxvevaSi armia umeTaurod rCeba da brZolis, an sulac, omis bedi saTuo xdeba. mxolod im ukidures SemTxvevaSi, roca viTarebis xsna mxolod mTavarsardals SeuZlia sakuTari riskis fasad, igi uyoymanod unda wavides am riskze da sasworze dados Tavisi sicocxle. TviT mas araerTxel mouxda Tavisi armiisaTvis aseTi magaliTis Cveneba. sakmarisia davasaxeloT lodi, arkole, rivoli, eilau, liutceni, arsi sur-obi da sxva brZolebi.
zemomoyvanil faqtebs ara mxolod istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvT. fsiqologiur mxares udidesi roli dRevandel pirobebSic ekisreba. amitom imperatoris ganTqmuli aforizmi ~sulieri Zala ise Seefardeba fizikurs, rogorc sami erTs~ kvlav ZalaSi rCeba da visac jer ars, maT gaigon da gaiTavison es.

 


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