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napoleoni da tulonis brZola
 
 
 

amiran nikuraZe
saqarTvelos napoleonis sazogadoeba
 
 
 
 
 

 1793 wlis SemodgomisaTvis safrangeTi ukiduresad rTul mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda. TiTqmis mTeli evropa amxedrebuliyo respublikis winaaRmdeg da mis srul ganadgurebas apirebda. istoriulad safrangeTi mudam mebrZoli qveyana iyo da mezobel saxelmwifoebTan TiTqmis ganuwyvetliv omobda. magram Tu adre frangebi kargad organizebuli da SeiaraRebuli armiis da evropaSi uZlieresi diplomatebis meSveobiT axerxebdnen gamarjvebebis mopovebas, axla sruliad sxva viTareba iyo. monarqiul evropaSi aRmocenebul pirvel revoluciur qveyanas aravin emxroboda da arc aravin gamoesarCleboda. safrangeTi Tavisi Tavis amara darCa da medgrad unda Sexvedriliyo moaxlovebul oms. arada TiTqos aRar Tavdeboda es saSineli 1793 weli. mdgomareoba TandaTanobiT uaresdeboda da mTeli evropa respublikis gardauval daRupvis molodinSi cxovrobda.


magram moxda saswauli, romelsac aravin eloda. moaxlovebuli safrTxis winaSe mTeli safrangeTi fexze dadga da arnaxuli vaJkacoba da Tavganwirva gamoiCina. kvlav gaisma 1792 wlis ganTqmuli mowodeba - ~samSoblo gansacdelSia !~ dauyonebliv gamocxadda sayovelTao mobilizacia da mokle droSi TiTqmis milionamde frangi dadga TofqveS.


saxelganTqmuli lazar karno, romelsac SemdgomSi ~gamarjvebaTa organizatori~ uwodes, armiebis Seqmnas Caudga saTaveSi da mokle droSi 14 armia (!!) Camoayaliba. sagangebo RonisZiebebis ganuxrelad gatarebisaTvis iakobinurma konventma qveyanaSi terori daakanona.  SeCerda adre miRebuli dekretebis moqmedeba, moispo sityvisa da presis Tavisufleba, SemoRebul iqna sikvdiliT dasja umcires danaSaulzec ki.


~amieridan da Cveni teritoriidan mowinaaRmdegis srul gandevnamde, uklebliv yvela frangi armiis samsaxurSi iricxeba. axalgazrdebi frontebze wavlen, xanSiSesulebi iaraRsa da sanovages daamzadeben, qalebi tansacmelsa da karvebs Sekeraven da hospitalebSi imuSaveben. erovnuli saxlebi jariskacTa yazarmebad gadakeTdeba, xolo sazogadoebrivi adgilebi - iaraRis damamzadebel saamqroebad . . . . ~ - ewera konventis dadgenilebaSi.

unda aRiniSnos, rom gare safrTxis paralelurad, ukiduresad iZabeboda qveynis Sida mdgomareoba. swored am dros, 1793 wlis zafxulis miwuruls, erTmaneTis miyolebiT amboxebul samxreTis qalaqebs tulonmac auba mxari. cxovrebis pirobebis gauaresebam da respublikuri (iakobinuri) administraciis simkacrem qalaqis mcxovreblebi sabolood gamoiyvana moTminebidan da roialistTa da ingliselTa dapirebebiT motyuebuli tuloni parizs ganudga.
1793 wlis 23 agvistos tulonis seqciebi ajanydnen, daapatimres da

 la-maltis cixeSi Casves konventis saxalxo warmomadgenlebi beili da bove da ingliselebs daukavSirdnen. qalaqi, Tavisi mZlavri, pirvelxarisxovani cixe-simagriT, safrangeTis mTeli xmelTaSua zRvis flotiT (31 saxazo gemi da ramodenime fregati), sawyobebiTa da Tofxanis sardafebi didi maragiTurT ingleselebis xelSi aRmoCnda.


es respublikisaTvis katastrofis tolfasi iyo. tuloni xmelTaSua zRvaSi erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani navsadgomi gaxldaT, romelic safrangeTis samxreT provinciebs amaragebda.


amasTan, qalaqis galavani gamoCenili samxedro inJinerisa da safortifikacio xelovnebis didi ostatis sebastian vobanis mier iyo agebuli (1633-1707).  mefe-mzis lui XIV-is dros safrangeTma TiTqmis yvela sferoSi - politikaSi, xelovnebaSi da literaTuraSi saocari ayvaveba da ganviTareba ganicada. gamonaklisi arc safortifikacio xelovneba iyo, romlis saxeli swored sebastian vobanTan aris dakavSirebuli. vobanma Tavisi moRvaweobis ganmavlobaSi 33 axali cixe-simagre aasena, rekosntruqcia Cautara da srulyo 300-ze meti cixe-simagre, monawileoba miiRo 53 garemocvaSi da 104 brZolasa da SetakebaSi. niWieri samxedro inJineris garda, vobani brwyinvale artileristi, taqtikosi da politikosi iyo. samxedro inJineriis sferoSi man mTeli gadatrialeba moaxdina da cixe-simagreebis agebisa da maTi garemocvis sruliad axali taqtika SeimuSava. swored aseTi didi ostatis mier iyo agebuli tulonis cixe-simagrec.


aseTi mniSvnelovani qalaqisa da pirvelxarisxovani cixe-simagris dakargva ki respublikur safrangeTs bevr problemas moutanda. amis garda arsebobda kidev erTi mniSvnelovani garemoeba, romelic tulonis dabrunebis aucileblobas iwvevda:qalaqi advilad SeiZleboda gamxdariyo roialistTa da ingliselTa intervenciis placdarmi, saidanac am ukanaksnelT advilad SeeZloT wamoewyoT Seteva CrdiloeTisaken, lionis mimarTulebiT, an SeerTebodnen samxreT-dasavleTidan momaval espanelebs da faqtiurad, safrangeTis mTeli samxreTi CaegdoT xelT.


Ralatma, romelmac ingleselebs xelSi Caugdo xmelTaSua zRvis mTeli floti da TviTon qalaqic, mTeli safrangeTi SesZra. konventma saswrafod gamoyo tulonis saalyo armia da mas saTaveSi generali karto Cauyena. saalyo artileriis xelmZRvanelad sazogadoebrivi xsnis komitetma moiTxova Zveli samsaxuris artileriis oficeri da swored am dros SesTavaza saliCetim yvelasaTvis ucnobi artileriis maior napoleon buonapartes kandidatura. daaxloebiT am periodSi, rodesac napoleoni samxedro ministrs buSots mimarTavda TxovniT misi rainis armiaSi gadayvanis Sesaxeb, mis gzaze kvlav gamoCnda qristofore saliCeti. saliCeti, ogiusten robespierTan, gasparenTan da rikorTan erTad samxreTSi iyo gagzavnili da konventis komisrebidan erTaderTi iyo, vinc napoleons icnobda da pativs scemda. swored amitom, rodesac 1793 wlis seqtemberSi, qalaq boseSi napoleoni konventis komisrebs warudga win, saliCeti mas gulTbilad Sexvda da daxmareba SesTavaza. cota xnis win saliCetim napoleonis Zmasac, Jozefsac daexmara da samxreTis armiis StabTan arsebuli batalionis meTaurad daaniSnina igi - aRsaniSnavia, rom zogi mkvlevari mianiSnebs  saliCetisa da napoleonis Zmas, Jozefs Soris frankmasonur kavSirze, romelmac garkveul wilad napoleonis winsvlaze imoqmeda..


saliCetim Tavisi danapireba pirnaTlad Seasrula da rogorc zemoT davinaxeT, sazogadoebrivi xsnis komitets buonapartes kandidatura warudgina. napoleoni maSinve daniSnes da brZaneba misces saCqarod gamgzavrebuliyo tulons, general kartos armiis mTavar banakSi saartilerio parkis mosawyobad da mis xelmZRvanelad.


12 seqtembers napoleoni general kartos warudga win da Tavisi daniSvnis Sesaxeb moaxsena. tulonis saalyo armiis sardali Jan fransua karto safrangeTis armiaSi metad koloritul pirovnebas warmoadgenda. rogorc revoluciis dros xdeba xolme, xelmZRvanel da  sameTauro Tanamdebobeze xSirad SemTxveviTi pirovnebebi iniSneba da kartoc maT ricxvs miekuTvneboda. araviTari ganaTleba, maT Soris, cxadia arc samxedro, mas ar gaaCnda. mefis dros igi jer dragunTa aseulSi msaxurobda, erTxans Jandarmic iyo, bolos mxatvrobasac mihyo xeli da Tavsac amiT irCenda. magram kartos Zlieri nebisyofa da didi TviTdajerebuloba gaaCnda, romelTa meSveobiT gasaocar samsaxureobriv warmatebebs miaRwia:sam TveSi igi jer polkovnikobas, Semdeg brigadis generlobas da bolos diviziis generlobas da mTavarsardlobas miaRwia !


kartos armia samxedro specialistebis da pirvel rigSi artileristebis naklebobas ganicdida. saliCeti ar cdeboda, rodesac axlgazrda da ucnobi, magram artileriaSi kargad gaTviTcnobirebuli napoleonis am armiaSi daniSvnas moiTxovda. cota xanSi ki yvela darwmunda, Tu ra energiuli, saqmis mcodne kaci Caudga saTaveSi artilerias. artilerias simagris garemocvaSi gadamwyveti roli ekisreboda da mis moqmedebaze didad iyo damokidebuli respublikelTa gamarjvebis bedi. ase rom axalgazrda napoleons TiTqmis yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo posti eWira da swored axla unda gamoeCina Tavi da Tavisi cxovreba Seecvala.


rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, buonaparti armiaSi 12 seqtembers Cavida da im dResve warudga mTavarsardals. kartosTan xanmokle saubaric ki sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis, rom napoleoni mimxvdariyo:am kacs samxedro saqmeSi araferi gaegeboda da miTumetes cixe-simagreTa garemocvaSi. sabolood amaSi napoleoni meore dRes, 13 seqtembers darwmunda, rodesac kartom igi poziciebis dasaTvaliereblad waiyvana. mTavarsaldalma siamayis daufaravi grZnobit uCvena mas Taavisi iniciativit gawyobili 8 zarbazniani  batarea, romelic ingliselTa flotis gasanadgureblad iyo gamiznuli, magram kartos brZanebiT, igi mowinaaRmdegis gemebidan TiTqmis 5 kilometris daSorebiT iyo gamarTuli, maSin rodesac im droindeli yvelaze Sorsmsroleli zarbazani 3 kilometramde Zlivs isroda. ~amaze sasacilo ram Zneli warmosadgeni iyo~ - werda SemgomSi Tavis mogonebebSi napoleoni.
buonaparti xedavda, rom saalyo parkis mSenebloba sul Tavidan unda daewyo da energiulad Seudga saqmes. eqvs kviraSi napoleonis iniciativiT samxreT-armosavleT safrangeTis zRvispireTis mravali qalaqidan tulonis midamoebSi gadmotanili iqna 100 didi yalibis qvemexi, aSenebili iqna saxelosnoebi, Camoyalibda momaragebis sistema. napoleonis brZanebiT zed zRvis pirze aSenda ori batarea, romelTac mTis da sankiulotebis batareebis ewoda. am batareebis gamudmebuli srolis Semdeg mtris gemebi iZulebuli gaxdnen gaSorebuliyvnen da daecalaT mcire reidi. alyis pirvel TveebSi saalyo jarSi arc erTi sainJinero oficeri ar iyo, ris gamoc napoleoni inJinerebis, artileriis ufrosis da saartilerio parkis meTauris movaleobebs asrulebda. mTel dReebs napoleoni batareebze atarebda, dRe da Rame SeuCereblad, Seusveneblad muSaobda.


14 oqtombers alyaSemortymulebma, 4000 kacis raodenobiT, mowyves Tavdasxma, raTa xelSi CaegdoT mTisa da sankiulotebis batareebi, romelnic mosvenebas ar aZlevdnen maT eskadrebs. napoleonis winamZRolobiT mtris Tavdasxma jer moigeries da Semdeg cixisaken ukuaqcies.


seqtembris miwuruls daba olulSi Seiriba samxedro sabWo, romelsac unda gadaewyvita, Tu romeli mxridan unda daewyoT moalyeebs mTavari ieriSi - aRmosavleTidan Tu dasavleTidan? erTxmad iqna gadawyvetili, rom ieriSi dasavleTidan unda miitanon, radgan kargad daculi aRmosavleTi mxarisagan gansxvavebiT, dasavleTiT mxolod erTi cixe malboskesi iyo, da isic ubralo savele simagres warmoadgenda.


meored sabWo 15 oqtombers Seikriba da parizidan gamogzavnil garSemortymis gegmas ganixilavda, romelic general d'arsonis mier iyo Sedgenili da SemdegSi mdgomareobda:gegmiT navaraudevi iyo, rom jari 60000 (!) jariskacisagan Sesdgeba da uxvad aqvs yvela saWiro masala(!). saalyo jars jer unda aeRo mTa da faronis, ruJis, blanis da sent-katrianis cixeebi, Semdeg gaeTxara sangrebi tulonis cixis galavnis pirispir da daewyo ieriSi. rogorc vxedavT gegma naklebad realuri iyo:tulonisnairi Zlieri cixe-simagris pirdapiri ieriSi uamrav msxverpls gamoiwvevda da amasTan arc gamarjvebis garantias iZleoda. amasTanave aseTi gziT moqmedebisas alya TavisTavad didi xniT gaWianurdeboda da alyaSemortymulebs dros miscemda mieRoT daxmareba.


yvelasaTvis moulodnelad sabWoze Tavisi gegma axalgazrda napoleonmac warmoadgina, romelic sruliad gansxvavdeboda wina gegmisagan da didi gaoceba gamoiwvia. napoleoni amtkicebda, rom ar aris saWiro amdeni cixe-simagreebis aReba da Semdeg kidev sangrebis aSeneba.  napoleoni icavda im azrs, rom Tu tulons zRvidan Semoartyavdnen iseTive alyas, rogorc xmeleTidan - cixe TavisTavad gatydeboda.  buonapartis gegmis Rirseba imaSi iyo, rom igi ieriSis gareSe qalaqis swrafad dabrunebis saSualebas iZleoda. buonaparti, Tavisi gegmis Sedgenisas fiqribda, rom Tu moalyeni qalaqis reidebidan gandevnidnen ingliselTa flots, qalaqi saboloo angariSSi ganwiruli iqneboda. mtrisTvis ufro xelsayreli iyo - daewva sawyobebi da Tofxana, aefeTqebina navsakeTebeli, waeyvana gemebi da gaewminda qalaqi, vidre Caeketa masSi 15-aTasiani garnizoni da gaewira igi, radgan adre Tu gvian, mainc mouwevdaT iaraRis dayra, magram ukve kapitulaciis mZime pirobebze. ingliselebi ki amaze ar wavidodnen da aucileblad miatovebdnen tulonelebs. ingliselTa tulonis reidebidan gandevnisaTvis sakmarisi iyo lagomSi, egiletis koncxis kidurze aSenebuliyo erTi 42 qvemexiani batarea, meore ki, aseTive Zalisa, - cota moSorebiT, balagies koncxze. am or koncxze ganlagebuli batareebi ingliselTa flots reidebze gaCerebis saSualebas mouspoben da maT datovebas aiZuleben. xolo ingliselTagan mitovebuli tuloni didxans ver gauZlebda alyas da danebdeboda. ~Tu am gegmas miiRebT, sityvas gaZlevT, tulons erT kviraSi CagabarebTo~ - daumatavs boloSi napoleons.


magram generalma kartom uaryo igi - aseTi Tamami gegmisaTvis igi jer kidev ar iyo mzad. napoleonma bevri idava, magram araferi gamouvida:yvelaferi iqiT midioda, rom gegmas Sesruleba ar ewera. amasobaSi ki mowinaaRmdegem swored Seafasa keris naxevarkunZulis strategiuli mniSvneloba da iq saswrafod gadasxa jari. ingliselebma moixmares yvelaferi, rac ki maT xelT arsebobda:gemebis ekipaJebi, tuloneli muSebi, xe-tye da SeuCerebeli muSaobis Sedegad, mokle droSi naxevarkunZulis SuaSi mZlavri reduti aages, romelic yovelmxriv gaamagres, Sig didi garnizoni Caayenes da redutis siZliereSi darwmunebulebma mas ~mcire hibraltari~ uwodes. ukve aRar SeiZleboda fiqri keris naxevarkunZulze ubrZolvelad Sevlisa da mis koncxebze batareebis agebaze. axla unda aSenebuliyo axali batarea ingliselTa redutis win, dawyebuliyo sasangro muSaoba da rogorme aeRoT ~mcire hibraltaris~ simagre. Zvirfasi dro dakarguli aRmoCnda.


rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, qristofore saliCetisTan erTad, armiaSi komisrad mivlinebuli iyo Toma gasparenic, energiuli da Wkviani kaci, romelmac kargad icoda samxedro saqme. buonaparte daukavSirda mas da tulonis garemocvis Tavisi gegmas gaacno. gasparenma maSinve Seafasa am gegmis Rirseba, mxarSi amoudga artileriis ufross da yovelmxrivi daxmareba aRuTqva mas. amasTan tulonis garemomcvel armiaSi kidev erTi komisari iyo - ogiusten robespieri, Zma yovlisSemZle maqsimilian robespierisa. gasparenma umcros robespiers gaacno buonapartis gegma, romelmac aseve miwona igi da samxedro sabWoze Tavisi daxmareba SesTavaza. es ki ukve bavrs niSnavda. magram kartom arc samxedro sabWoze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis Semdeg Seicvala azri da napoleons TiTqmis yoveldRe uxdeboda Sedaveba uvic mTavarsardalsa da mis StabTan. xan zarbaznebs moabrunebdnen sul sxva, sawinaaRmdego mxrisaken, xan umiznod uSendnen cecxls mowinaaRmdegis batareebs. erTxel mTavarsardalma aiyvana napoleoni amaRlebul adgilze da ubrZana malboskes, ruJisa da blanis cixeebs Soris daedga batarea. amaod cdilobda buonaparti aexsna  kartosTvis, rom sam cixes Soris ganlagebul am  batareas Txutmet wuTSi daangrevdnen da mTel garnizons amowyvetdnen. karto mTeli Tavisi qedmaRlobiT Tavisas gaiZaxoda. napoleoni iZulebuli iyo, miuxedavad samxedro disciplinis simkacrisa, ar Seerulebina es brZaneba.


meorejer, kartom gasca brZaneba aegoT batarea swored im mimarTulebiT, romelic saerTo gegmas ewinaaRmdegeboda da amasTan iseT adgilze Senobis win, rom ar rCeboda manZili qvemexis ukugorvisaTvis, xolo amiT gamowveuli saxlis nangrevebs ki SeeZloT msaxurT dascemodnen Tavze. napoleoni iZulebuli iyo xelmeored ar damorCileboda mTavarsardlis brzanebas.
bolos da bolos, Tavgabezrebulma da gaRizianebulma buonapartma gasparens miswera werili saqmis viTarebaze da kvlav gaumeora tulonis aRebis sakuTari gegma. kartos moqmedebiT SeSfoTebulma gasparenma dauyovnebliv parizs gagzavna kurieri, romelsac buonapartis gegma da kartos pirovnebaze Tavisi Sexedulebebi gaatana.


gasparenisaTvis es ukanaskneli politikuri qmedeba iyo. didi xnis gadaRlam, SromaSi gaTenebulma Rameebma gastexes es foladis kaci. noembris pirvel ricxvebSi gaspareni gadaRlilobisagan loginad Cavarda da 11 noembers, mSobliur qalaq oranJSi 39 wlis gaspareni gardaicvala. saliCetis winadaddebiT, konventma brZana gasparenis guli parizis panTeonSi gadmoesvenebinaT.


buonapartisTvis ki gasparenis es ukanaskneli daxmareba sabediswero aRmoCnda:kartos tuloni daatovebines da alpur armiaSi gagzavnes. mxatvari karto 10 noembers eqimma fransua dopem Secvala. napoleonis mogonebebiT, es iyo ~kartoze Wkviani kaci, magram iseTive uvici samxedro saqmeSi, da yvela im kacis mteri, visac raime niWi etyoboda~. dopes Camosvlis meore dRes, 11 noembers, miulgravis cixe-simagresTan gacxarebuli brZola gaCaRda. maSinve brZolis adgilze mTavarsardali da napoleoni mividnen. ukanasknelis azriT, radgan cixis ieriSi dawyebuli iyo, unda daemTavrebinaT igi da aeRoT cixe-simagre. dope dasTanxmda mas da ieriSis sardlobac daavala. magram moulodnelad, Sua brZolaSi, mTavarsardalma ieriSis Sewyveta brZana da nawilebi ukan gamoiZaxa. aRmoCnda, rom sacecxle xazze, mtavarsardlisagan moSorebiT misi adiutanti mokles, ris gamoc SeSinebulma dopem ieriSi CaSala. napoleoni, romelsac pirisaxe SeRebuli hqonda Sublis msubuqi Wrilobidan Camonadeni sisxliT, miiWra dopesTan da gancvifrebulma Sehyvira:im briyvma, romelmac brZolis Sewyveta brZana, tulonis aReba CagviSalao. jariskacebic, romelTac daxevis dros bevri TavianTi amxanagi dakarges, samduravs gamoTqvamdnen - nuTu dro ar aris amas bolo moeRos. rodis Seswyveten mxatvrebisa da eqimebis sardlebad gzavnasao.


jariskacebis RaRadi Seismines. 10 dRis Semdeg dope gadayenebuli iqna da mis nacvlad mTavarsardloba saxelovan Jan fransua diugomies Caabares. ~mas Zveli meomris yvela Tviseba hqonda~ - ixsenebda SemdgomSi napoleoni - ~TviTon metismetad gulads uyvarda guladebi da maTTac uyvarda igi. iyo gulkeTili, Tumca ficxi, energiuli, samarTliani. hqonda marjve samxedro Tvali, omSi medgari da aRuSfoTveli.~ diugomiem SeZlo buonapartTan saerTo enis gamonaxva da mis mimarT Rrma pativiscemiT gaimsWvala. 25 noembers man samxedro sabWo moiwvia, romelzedac konventis komisrebis xelSewyobiT diugomie napoleonis gegmis Sesrulebaze daTanxmda. axla sityvebidan saqmeze iyo saWiro gadasvla da danapirebisamebr ~erT kviraSi tulonis aReba~.


rogorc aRvniSneT, ingliselTa flotis gaZevebisaTvis, pirvel rigSi ~mcire hibraltaris~ aReba iyo saWiro. pirdapiri ieriSi, winaswari saartileriuo momzadebis gareSe uazro iqneboda da did danakargebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. amitom buonapartma jer redutis win 45 zarbazniani batareebi aRmarTa. amasTan napoleonis azriT saWiro iyo kidev erTi
 

batarea arenis maRlobze daedgaT, malborskis cixis win, ise rom meore dRes mcire hibraltaris aRebis Semdeg, SesaZlebeli yofiliyo am batareebidan cecxlis gaxsna. artileriis ufrosi xSirad ambobda, rom mtris ZlevisaTvis, unda moulodnelad imoqmedoo da amitom misi brZanebiT e.w. ~konventis batariis~ mseneblobas saidumloebaSi inaxavdnen da yvelanairad niRbavdnen. magram buonapartis gegmebi kinaRam CaSlili aRmoCnda:29 noenbers, SuadReze ~konventis bataria~  saxalxo warmomadgenlebma inaxules, romlebmac iq mdgomi 12 zarbazani daaTvalieres da TofCebs cecxli gaxsnis brZaneba misces. napoleons kinaRam elda eca, rodesac amdeni wvalebiT damalulma bataream cecxli gaxsna da mters Tavisi adgilsamyofeli gasca. gancvifrebulma buonapartma maSinve saxalxo damcvelebze mTavarsardalTan saCivari dawera, magram Cadenilis gamosworeba ukve SeuZlebeli iyo. meore dRes ganTiadze tulonidan mTavarsardal o"xaras meTaurobiT 7000 kaci gamovida, gadalaxa sen-antuanis cixesTan patara Rele, Tavs daesxa konventis batarias, gaacamtvera iq mdgomi yvela guSagi da xelT igdo zarbaznebi. frangebis mTavar banakSi gangaSi atyda. diugomie da buonaparti maSinve cxenebs moaxtnen da sabrZolo xazisken gaswies:diugomie uSualod ieriSis mimarTulebiT, xolo napoleoni, mtris Semdgomi winsvlis SesaCereblad, romelic olulis saartilerio parks emuqreboda, saswrafod savele qvemexebs agrovebda. Semdeg napoleoni warTmeuli batareis mopirdapire maRlobisaken gaswia. patara Walaze, romelic konventis batareasa da am maRlobs Soris gadioda, mwvervalidan yrilis kidemde saidumlo gza gadioda, romelic buonapartis brZanebiT batariaze sabrZolo masalis misatanad iyo agebuli da zeTis xis totebiT dafaruli SeumCneveli iyo mtris jariskacebisaTvis. buonapartma isargebla amiT da Tavisi jariskacebis erTi aTaseuliT SeumCnevlad gavida mtris zurgSi da cecxli gauxsna mas. gaCaRda gacxovelebuli brZola, romlis dros frangebis mxridan nasrolma tyviam wiTel formaSi gamowyobil erT-erT oficers moxda, romelic baqanze idga da brZanebebs gascemda. yrilSi Cavardnili oficeri, frangebisaTvis moulodnelad TviT ingliselTa jaris mTavarsardali oxara aRmoCnda, romelic dauyonebliv napoleonTan miiyvanes. sardlis tyveT Cavardnam, mowinaaRmdegis gaaqtiurebam da alyaSi Cavardnis saSiSroebam aiZula ingliselebi ukan daxeuliyvnen da qalaqSi dabrunebuliyvnen. frangebi gamarjvebas zeimobdnen, napoleons ki brZolis dros gamoCenili moxerxebulobasa da mamacbisaTvis mTavarsardalma polkovnikoba uboZa.
13 dekembers italiidan gamogzavnili 2500 kacisagan Semdgari damxmare razmis mosvlam, frangebis Stabs keris naxevarkunZulis dakaveba gadaawyvetina da meore dRes, 14 dekembers frangTa batareebma ~mcire hibraltars~ cecxli gauxsnes. cxadia, ingliselebma maT cecxlis gaxsniT upasuxes, gaCaRda gacxovelebuli saartilerio brZola, romelic 15 da 16 dekembersac gagrZelda. 16-Si saRamos Tavsxma wvima wamovida da Zlieri qari amovarda. gaxarebuli napoleoni jariskacebs amxnevebda, buneba xels gviwyobs gadamwyveti ieriSisaTviso. Seteva meore dRes, 17 dekembers daiwyo da sami koloniT xorcieldeboda. mowinave kolonas TviTon mTavarsardali diugomie meTaurobda. sisxliani Setakebis Semdeg, ingliselebma SeZles respublikelTa Setevis mogerieba da frangebi ukan daxevas iwyebdnen, rodesac diugomiem meoTxe kolonas, romelsac TviTon napoleoni meTaurobda, Setevaze gadasvla ubrZana. napoleonis brZanebiT kolonis win adgilis saukuTeso mcodnes kapitan miuronis aTaseuli midioda. dilis 3 saaTze miuronis aTaseulma SesZlo mowinaaRmdegis redutSi SeRweva da mas danarCeni frangebi mihyvnen. Setakebis dros napoleons jer cxeni moukles, Semdeg ki Tavadac daWres xiStiT fexSi. dilis 5 saaTisaTvis ~mcire hibraltari~ frangebis xelSi iyo. buonapartma maSinve  saartilerio batareebis gamarTva da ingliselTa gemebisaTvis cecxlis gaxsna brZana. zRvaze uZleveli ingliselebi uZlurebi aRmoCndnen saxmeleTo batareebis winaSe da saswrafod datoves orive reidi. es ki tulonis bedis amarad mitovebas niSnavda. ~xval an - didi dagviandes - zeg, Tqven tulonSi isadilebTo~ - ganucxada brZolis Semdeg napoleonma generlebs.


aqve unda aRiniSnos erTi friad saintereso faqti, romelic napoleonis pirovnebis kidev erT Tvisebas hfens naTels. ra Tqma unda, buonaparti ar iyo pirveli, vinc fsiqologiur faqtors yuradReba miaqcia, magram udavoa, rom pirvelia, vinc am faqtors ase Rrmad Cawvda da  manamde arnaxul simaRleze aiyvana. jariskacis fsiqologiis da masze zemoqmedebis unari napoleonma pirvelad swored tulonis garemocvis dReebSi gamoavlina. mcire hibraltaris aRebis Semdeg, buonapartma erT metad moxerxebul, magram Zalian saxifaTo adgilas saartilerio batareis gamarTva gadawyvita. am adgilidan tulonis reidebze gaCerebul ingliselTa gemebisaTvis metad Zlieri cecxlis gaxsna SeiZleboda. magram amave dros mowinaaRmdegesac SeeZlo am batareisaTvis Zlieri cecxli gaexsna da didi zarali mieyenebina misTvis. Znelad, rom vinmes gaeZlo maT grigalisebur cecxls. magram napoleonma gaiTvaliswina ra es garemoeba, RamiT, batareis gamarTvasTan erTad, brZana mis ukan didi alami gamoekidaT, romelzedac gamoyvanili iyo mis mier batareisaTvis darqmeuli saxeli - ~uSiSarTa batarea~. man kargad icoda, rom jariskacebi, Seqebaze Zunw bonapartis mier gamoxatul aseT did ndobas ar uRalatebdnen da mis dasamtkiceblad sisxlis ukanasknel wveTamde ibrZolebdnen. diliT, mzis amosvlisTanave orive mxridan cecxli gaixsna. napoleonis mier batareisaTvis boZebuli saxeliT gulmocemulma da siamayiT aRvsilma frangma artileristebma mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi  ingliselTa gamanadgurebeli cecxlis qveS ibrZodnen da miuxedavad didi danakargebisa, fexic ki ar moicvales iqidan. saRamos ingliselebi iZulebulebi iyvnen SeewyvitaT cecxli da reidebidan gasuliyvnen. axalgazrda mTavarsardlis es uCveulo nabiji adamianis xasiaTis, misi Taviseburebebis did codnaze da fsiqologiis sakiTxebSi Rrmad ganswavlulobaze metyvelebs, rac SemdgomSi kidev araerTxel damtkicdeba.


18 dekembers saRamos saSineli afeTqebis xmam frangebs tulonis Tofis wamlis mTavari sawyobis afeTqebis Sesaxeb amcno. naxevari saaTis Semdeg ki mTeli reidi cecxlis alSi gaexvia - iwvoda safrangeTis flotis cxra saxazo gemi da oTxi fregati, romelTac ingliselTa ukanasknelma razmebma wasvlis wis cecxli waukides. qalaqi carieldeboda, mcxovrebTa umravlesoba saswarafod gascura gemebiT


imave dRes, saRamos 10 saaTze frangebma SeZles qalaqis karebis Semtvreva da Sig Sevidnen. maT mTeli qalaqi Semoiares da yvelgan didi siwynare daxvdaT. navsadgurSi mravali bargi eyara, romelTa waReba gaqceulma qalaqelebma ver moaswres. tuloni respublikelebis xelSi iyo.
mTeli safrangeTi zeimobda am gamarjvebas. is faqti, rom gamarjveba frangebisaTvis yvelaze mZime 1793 wels iqna mopovebuli, ormag sixaruls aniWebda mosaxleobas. es ara marto samxedro warmateba, aramed udidesi politikuri gamarjvebac iyo. da pirvel rigSi es iyo didi gamarjveba buonapartesaTvis, misi brwyinvale samxedro karieris dasawyisi. mas kidev uamravi aseTi da masze didebuli da saxelovani gamarjveba eloda win, magram tuloni mudam erTaderTi da ganumeorebeli iyo misTvis. swored aq gamoCnda pirvelad misi poziciuri xedvis unari, taqtikuri alRo, piradi simamace da rac mTavaria, winamZRolobisa da organizaciis ubadlo niWi. swored tulonTan SeamCnies da daafases igi. mTavarsardali diugomie aRtacebas ver faravda. man dauyonebliv waradgina napoleoni brigadis generlis wodebaze da sazogadoebrivi xsnis komitetTan gagzavnil werilSi werda:


~daajildoveT da win waswieT es axalgazrda, Torem TviTon waswevs Tavis Tavs win ! ~


axalgazrda napoleoniT aRfrTovanebuli iyo generali diu teilic:
~sityvebi ver mominaxavs, rom buonapartes damsaxurebebi aRvwero~ - atyobinebda igi samxedro ministrs - ~saqmisadmi Rrma midgoma, movlenaTa arsis bolomde Cawvdoma da usazRvro simamace - es sityvebi sakmarisi araa am saocari oficris Rirsebebis srulad warmoCenisaTvis ~
1793 wlis 22 dekembers ogiusten robespierma da saliCetim buonapartes brigadis generlis wodeba mianiWes da sazeimod mouloces.


didi rusi mwerlis lev tolstois saxelganTqmul nawarmoebSi ~omi da mSvidoba~, erTi saintereso momenti aris, rodesac Tavadi andrei bolkonski gaigebs ra bilibinisagan imis Sesaxeb, rom napoleonis avangardi dunaize gadavida da briunisaken midis, moulodnelad tulonis Sesaxeb gaixsenebs - ~es cnoba mware da amave dros sasiamovno iyo andreisTvis. rogorc ki man rusuli armiis gamousvleli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb Seityo, maSinve daebada azri, rom swored es aris is tuloni, romelic mas ucnob oficerTa rigebidan gamoiyvans da didebisaken mimaval gzas gauxsnis ~ (msoflio literaturis biblioTeka, l. tolstoi ~omi da mSvidoba~, I tomi gv. 213)
me-18 saukunis axalgazrdebisaTvis tuloni, swored rom aseTi moulodneli warmatebis da swrafi aRzevebis simbolo gaxda. tolstois kargad aqvs gadmocemuli misi arsi, mniSvneloba - im droindeli axalgazrdebisaTvis es iyo ~didebisaken mimavali gza~; gza, romelmac napoleoni franguli armiis uamrav oficerisagan gamoarCia da qveyanas gaacno.


mravali wlis Semdeg, wm. elenes kunZulze, napoleoni yvelaze xSirad swored tulons ixsenebda - mas cxovrebaSi uamravi saxelovani gamarjveba hqonda - lodi, arkole, rivole, austerlici, vagrami, iena da mravali sxva,; nebismier maTgans SeeZlo didebis SaravandSi gaexvia misi saxeli, magram napoleonisaTvis yvelaze Zvirfasi mainc tuloni rCeboda. tuloni misTvis bedis Semobrunebis da didi momavlis is patara naperwkali iyo, romlidanac Semdgom napoleonis ukvdavi didebis koconi dainTo.
swored tulonis garemocvis dReebSi buonapartTan TandaTanobiT Seiqmna oficerTa mcirericxovani jgufi, romelic momavali ~napoleonis pleadis~ pirvel nakads warmoadgenda. Tavidan masSi mxolod oTxi kaci, - Jiuno, marmoni, miuroni da diuroki, - iyo
andoS Jiuno buonapartze 2 wliT iyo umcrosi. glexis ojaxSi dabadebuli da gazrdili Jiuno jer kidev bavSvobaSi dragunTa aseulSi Caewera da ukve 18 wlisa erovnuli gvardiis razmis meTauri gaxda. igi Tavisi brwyinvale kaligrafiiTa da gasaocaro simamaciT iyo ganTqmuli, romelTa wyalobiT momavali imperatoris guli moinadira:
erTxel, mowinaRmdegesTan gaafTrebuli brZolis dros, zarbaznis lafetze miyrdnobili Jiuno napoleonis nakarnaxevs iwerda, rodesac mtris erT-erTi yumbara maTTan axlos afeTqda da Jiunos da mis nawersac blomad miwa gadaayara. Jiuno wynarad wamodga, miwa Camoibertya da rodesac Tavis qaRaldebs Sexeda, mxiarulad wamoiZaxa:
~ra kargia, melnis gasaSrobad nawerze silis moyra aRar damWirdebao~
napoleoni aRtacebuli darca am axalgazrdis vaJkacobiTa da mxiarulobiT. Tavisi alRoTi maSinve mixvda, rom aseTi pirovneba gverdidan mosaSorebeli ar iyo. da arc motyuebula. Jiunoze erTguli mas arc ise bevri hyolia cxovrebaSi. SemdgomSi abrantis hercogma da ~qariSxlad~ wodebulma, Jiunom bonapartis yvela samxedro kampaniaSi miiRo monawileoba da samsaxureobrivi ierarqiis safexurebze swrafad iwyo svla.


Jan batist de miuroni mxolod 19 wlis iyo, rodesac tulonTan, ~mcire hibraltaris~ ieriSis dros napoleonma mas mowinave batalionis meTauroba daavala. ganaTlebuli oficeri, romelSic TavzexelaRebuli simamace da iniciativa Zlier gonebasTan iyo Serwymuli, igi napoleonis TanamebrZolTagan erT-erTi yvelaze niWieri oficeri iyo. magram saubedurod, igi jer kidev axalgazrda, mxolod 22 wlis asakSi daiRupa arkoles xidTan gamarTul cnobil brZolaSi - gadamwyvet momentSi igi napoleons gadaefara da misTvis gankuTvnili dartymebi Tavis Tavze miiRo. napoleoni didad afasebda miurons da yovelTvis didi siyvaruliT ixsenebda mas. 1799 wels egviptedan dabrunebisas, erT-erT fregats napoleonma swored miuronis saxeli daarqva, xolo 1815 wels vaterlosTan damarcxebis Semdeg, napoleons miuronis an diurokis saxeliT undoda amerikaSi gauCinareba.
ogiust-frederik-luis vies de marmoni daibada 1774 wels aristokratiul ojaxSi, swavlobda saartilerio saswavlebelSi, Semdeg msaxurobda mecSi da monmediSi, xolo 1793 wels ufrosi leitenantis wodebiT tulonSi iqna gagzavnili, sadac, rogorc TviTon werda, ~Sexvda am araCveulebriv adamians, romelsac mTeli sicocxle daukavSira~.


buonapartes TiTqmis yvela mkvlevari erTxmad aRniSnaven, rom diuroki iyo erT-erTi im mcire jgufidan, romelTa azrs napoleoni ismenda da mxedvelobaSi iRebda. ~diuroki auCqarebeli, sityvaZunwi da mkacri xasiaTisa iyo,~ - ixsenebda napoleoni - ~ magram swored am garegan simkacreSi imaleboda Zlieri goneba da mxurvale guli~.


amaT garda, napoleonis yuradReba kidev bevrma sxva niWierma oficerma miipyro, romelTa Soris aRniSvnis Rirsni arian - viqtora, siuSe, leklerki. marTalia isini ar iyvnen napoleonisaTvis JiunosaviT an diurokiviT axlo da sando pirebi, magram buonaparti maTgan Tavisi pleadis meore nakadis Seqmnas apirebda.

 


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