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napoleonis rusuli kampania:
dakarguli SesaZleblobebisa da sabediswero
Secdomebis memkvidreoba
 

devid marqxami
napoleonis saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba

Targmani giorgi zabaxiZis

saqarTvelos napoleonis sazogadoeba 
 
 

 1812 wlis rusuli kampaniis droisaTvis aleqsandre da napoleoni jer kidev mokavSireebi iyvnen da arc surdaTYmsgavsi urTierTobis darRveva. Tumca am or mmarTvels Soris ganxeTqilebis ori mizezi arsebobda. napoleons surda poloneTis axali saxelmwifos Seqmna, rasac kategoriulad ewinaaRmdegebodnen aleqsandre da misi didebulebi. isini friad SeSfoTebuli iyvnen napoleonis mier varSavis sagrafos SeqmniT da moiTxovdnen napoleonis mier mis gauqmebas. napoleons ori safuZveli hqonda

ar Seesrulebina es moTxovna: pirvel yovlisa, mas garkveuli valdebuleba hqonda aRebuli polonelebis winaSe da meorec, mas sWirdeboda buferuli zonis SenarCuneba ruseTsa da danarCen evropas Soris. sabolood, zogierTma polonelma miiCnia,  rom napoleonma daarRvia maTTvis micemuli piroba. faqtobrivad, swored polonelebisadmi mxardaWeram ubiZga napoleons omisaken da yovelive es mas sakuTari gvirgvinis fasad daujda.
meore mTavar problemas warmoadgenda kontinenturi sistema. Tumca Tavidan warmatebiT dawyebulma britanuli saqonlis blokadam male kontinentsac imave xasiaTisa da simZimis problemebi Seuqmna, romlis winaSe Tavad britaneTi imyofeboda. marTlac, safrangeTSi cxovreba SedarebiT Zviri gaxda, gaizarda kontrabandis moculoba da safrangeTma zogierTi oficialuri `gamonaklisic~ daawesa blokadis procesSi.


 aleqsandresa da misi vaWarTa klasisaTvis situacia arasaxarbielo mimarTulebiT warimarTa. 1810 wlisaTvis isini xsnidnen TavianT portebs `neitraluri~ gemebis, anu inglisuri saqonlisaTvis, safrangeTTan vaWrobaze SezRudvebis dawesebis fonze. es iyo napoleonis aSkara gamowveva da TavisTavad omis provocirebas axdenda. poloneTis sakiTxTan erTobliobaSi am garemoebis ganxilva aranair eWvs ar badebs, rom omis Tavidan acileba SeuZlebeli iyo.


unda aRiniSnos, rom aleqsandre moemzada omisaTvis. man dado samSvidobo SeTanxmeba TurqeTTan da daiyolia safrangeTis yofili marSali da imJamad SvedeTis mefe bernadoti gamosuliyo safrangeTis winaaRmdeg. samagierod igi dapirda bernadots daxmareboda norvegiis dapyrobaSi. Semdgom aleqsandrem mTeli rigi moTxovnebi warudgina napoleons, romelTagan yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo safrangeTis mier varSavis sagrafos daTmoba. es napoleonisTvis yovlad miuRebeli iyo da Sesabamisad oms moaswavebda.
erTi saukunis Semdeg gaCaRebuli pirveli msoflio omis msgavsad, es iyo omi, romelic realurad aravis ar sWirdeboda da romlis damTavrebasac zogierTebi, maT Soris napoleonic, umokles vadaSi varaudobdnen. Tumca aleqsandres sinamdvileSi arc undoda omi, igi mzad iyo Seetyuebina napoleoni Rrmad deda ruseTis teritoriaze, Seeqmna frangebisaTvis gausaZlisi pirobebi da msgavsi politikiT daemarcxebina isini.


napoleoni sakmaod kargad icnobda istorias da aqedan gamomdinare srulad acnobierebda im garemoebas, rom msgavsi intervenciis warmatebiT damTavrebis precedenti ar arsebobda. igi saubrobda swraf gamarjvebasa da swraf mSvidobaze, amasTan kargad icoda rom aleqsandre mas ruseTSi Rrmad Seityuebda, amasTanave imasac varaudobda, rom adre Tu gvian, rusebi iZulebuli gaxdebodnen gaemarTaT gadamwyveti brZola. am mxriv ki napoleons sakmaod kargi gamocdileba hqonda:mas manamde arasdros ar hqonda wagebuli brZola rusebTan. gegma sakmaod naTeli iyo: frangebi ar gascildebodnen smolensks, moigebdnen ZiriTad brZolas da aleqsandresTan megobrobac kvlav im wertilidan gagrZeldeboda, sadac is Sewyda am samwuxaro `gaugebrobis~ gamo.
 

istorikosebi xSirad weren, rom ruseTis kampania warmoadgenda napoleonis `monumentaluri egos~ an `situaciis arasaTanadod Sefasebis~ Sedegs. arada arcerTi es mosazreba ar dgas axlos WeSmaritebasTan. es iyo sakmaod gaTvlili nabiji, romelmac garkveuli logikuroba SesZina msoflioSi ganviTarebul movlenebs. amasTan, es iyo ara napoleonis, aramed aleqsandres mier  provocirebuli nabiji. yvelafer sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, omisaTvis safrangeTis mzadeba ruseTis msgavsi moqmedebis pirdapir gamoZaxils warmoadgenda. napoleonma es kargad agrZnobina aleqsandres, kargad agrZnobina man aseve sakuTari miswrafeba mSvidobisaken, rasac ganapirobebda misi erTguleba tilzitSi dadebuli SeTanxmebebisadmi. mas surda mSvidoba, magram im momentSi omi gardauvali Seiqna.
napoleoni xelovani iyo omis saqmeSi da misi warmateba mniSvnelovnad iyo damokidebuli Tavdasxmis ganxorcielebaze. Tu ruseTi daadgeboda omis politikis gzas, napoleoni am oms Tavad ruseTSi gadaitanda, rasac misTvis Sesabamisi Sedegebic mohyveboda.


napoleonis rwmeniT, mas gaaCnda gamarjvebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi atributi - istoriis im etapze yvelaze didi sabrZolo Zala, romelic naxevar milionze met meomars iTvlida. aq warmodgenili iyo ocze meti sxvadasxva eri, TiToeuli maTgani sakuTari samxedro formiTa da droSiT. garkveulwilad problematuri iyo is garemoeba, rom TiToeuli maTgani sakuTar enaze saubrobda. franguli ki warmoadgenda ara ubralo jariskacebis, aramed elitis anu oficerTa umravlesobis enas.
saocrad STambeWdavi sanaxaoba iyo rodesac 1812 wlis 24 ivniss napoleonis armiam marSiT gadaiara mdinare nemani da Sevida ruseTis teritoriaze. Tvals ver gaawvdendiT naxevari milion kacs, aTasamde qvemexs, meomrebsa da marxilebs. da am dros vin daadanaSaulebda napoleons, rom aranairi safuZveli ar hqonda mis rwmenas sakuTar gamarjvebaSi. albaT, swored garemomcveli viTarebis StambeWdavma xasiaTma daakargvina mas realobis SegrZneba. napoleonis elCi ruseTSi arman de kolenkorti jer kidev 1811 wlis ivnisSi afrTxilebda mas, rom mefe aleqsandrem gaamJRavna sakuTari ganzraxva Rrmad Seetyuebina napoleoni ruseTSi, kerZod man aRniSna, rom `frangi mamacia, magram xangrZlivi gaWirveba da cudi klimati sZlevs da daukargavs mas SemarTebas. Cveni klimati, Cveni zamTari ibrZolebs Cvens mxareze.~1 napoleons unda gaecnobierebina mis winaSe mdgari safrTxe, magram misi Semdgomi moqmedebebi sawinaaRmdegos miuTiTeben. mas ar daugegmavs xangrZlivi kampania da arc hqonda ganzraxuli moskovsa Tu peterburgSi Sesvla. igi win miuZRoda evropis istoriaSi yvelaze mravalricxovan armias da mTeli imperia, TviT ruseTis didi nawilic am kampanias garduval warmatebas uwinaswarmetyvelebda. napoleonma dauSva pirveli kritikuli Secdoma: man saTanadod ar Seafasa misi oponentis - mefe aleqsandres SesaZleblobebi. es Secdoma mas sakmaod Zviri daujda.


brZolas mowyurebuli napoleonis Zalebi win miiwevdnen. ruseTis jari gaiyo or nawilad, romlebsac barklai de toli da petre bagrationi Caudgnen saTaveSi. napoleons amjeradac surda Tavisi nacadi xerxi gamoyenebina da saTiTaod, cal-calke daemarcxebina es ori armia vidre isini gaerTianebas moaxerxebdnen.


magram amjerad napoleonma ver aisrula Tavisi ganzraxva. iyo calkeuli Setakebebi, romlebic, uklebliv yvela, frangebis gamarjvebiT dasrulda. magram ar gaimarTa generaluri brZola, romelic SesaZleblobas miscemda napoleons gamoecxadebina sakuTari gamarjvebis Sesaxeb. ramodenimejer iyo SesaZlebloba gaemarTa brZola TiToeul rusul armiasTan, magram dabneuloba da yoymani aferxebda am miznis miRwevas. ukve naTeli Seiqna, rom samqeebi ise ar midioda, rogorc adre.


Tavidanve uprincipo da gaumarTlebelma dayovnebebma Seiwira frangebisaTvis Zvirfasi dro da masTan erTad, gamarjvebis SesaZlebloba. barklai de toli ar eloda frangebis winsvlas da SesaZlebeli iyo misi izolireba. kampania axali dawyebuli iyo da princ iujinis Zalebi ori dRiT CamorCebodnen grafiks. misi maragiT savse matarebeli mdinare nemanze Seyovnda. gabeduli lideri gamonaxavda gzebs mebrZoli nawilebis winsvlisTvis, magram SeyovnebiT srulad isargebla de tolma da aRidgina Tavisi poziciebi.
napoleonis Zma jeromi odnav ukeTesad moqmedebda, Tumca misi dabrkolebiT garkveulwilad bagrationma isargebla.2 ase rom, kampaniis pirvelive fazaze, ruseTSi Sesvlis momentSi, mis warmatebas ukve safrTxe Seeqmna napoleonis qvemdebare sardlebis gaubedavi moqmedebis gamo.


vilnos mimarTulebiT gadaadgilebisas morigi Seferxeba kidev erTi SesaZleblobis dakargvis mizezad iqca. amjerad SesaZlebeli iyo bagrationis armiasTan Serkineba da am  mizniT marSali davu moqmedebda. aq kidev erTxel Seferxda iujini, amjerad ori dRiT piloniSi. rodesac igi daniSnulebis adgilze mivida, ukve dagvianebuli iyo. Seferxda jeromic da SesaZlebloba misca bagrations arideboda brZolas.
unda vaRiaroT isic, rom 29 ivnisis kokispirulma wvimam aiZula napoleoni SeeCerebina miuratis, neisa da udinos winsvla, ramac aseve Seuwyo xeli bagrationis armiis garidebas brZolis velidan.


28 ivniss napoleoni Sevida vilnoSi. aq igi Tvrameti dRe icdida da eloda aleqsandres gamoCenas an saomrad an zavis dasadebad. lodini amao aRmoCnda. Tumca ivlisi iyo, napoleoni fiqrobda iq gamozamTrebas, magram dasvenebuli armia xom kargavs Tavis simtkices da efeqturobas. igi aseve fiqrobda iq xangrZlivi vadiT darCeniliyo da gamoeyenebina qalaqi rogorc baza sakuTari momavali operaciebisaTvis. dasasruls, man daaskvna, rom sWirdeboda winsvla, raTa gaemarTa erTi gadamwyveti brZola.


rodesac igi smolensks miuaxlovda, aRmoCnda rom or rusul armias moexerxebina gaerTianeba. imis nacvlad rom dauyovnebliv emoqmeda, 15 agvistos napoleonma brZana  erTdRiani Seyovneba, riTic rusebs ukandaxevis saSualeba misca. es iyo kritikuli dayovneba, rameTu srulad daikarga moulodnelobis efeqti da rusebs qalaqis dacvis saTanado organizebis SesaZlebloba miecaT. 16-17 agvistos qalaqis gareubnebSi mniSvnelovani brZolebi gaimarTa. 18 agvistos Setakebebi droebiT Sewyda, amiT isargebla bagrationis armiam da ukan daixia, Sesabamisad barklais armia napoleonis winaSe erTi-erTze aRmoCnda. napoleonma ar isargebla am brwyinvale SesaZleblobiT, rom cal-calke gaenadgurebina ruseTis es ori armia, romlebmac moaxerxes am situaciidan uvneblad gamosvla.


18 agvistos napoleoni Sevida qalaq smolenskSi. jer kidev parizSi SemuSavebuli gegmis mixedviT smolenski unda yofiliyo is wertili, romelsac ruseTSi Sesuli napoleoni ar gascdeboda. misi armia zamTris tanisamosiTac ar iyo momaragebuli, fiqric ki ar yofila zamTris kampaniaze, miT umetes, zamTarSi ukan daxevaze. Tumca rusebma daangries TavianTi qalaqi da ukan daixies. ase rom brZola smolenskTan ar Sesdga.
magram napoleoni ar iyo gulubryvilo. igi mixvda, rom saqme ar midioda misi gegmis Sesabamisad. mas arasruli warmodgena hqonda rusuli zamTris mkacr xasiaTze. arada vis SeuZlia sruli warmodgena iqonios masze, Tu sakuTar Tavze ar gamocdis mis bedukuRmarTobas?


smolenskTan napoleoni dadga gadawyvetilebis miRebis saWiroebis winaSe da es gadawyvetileba mas unda mieRo rac SeiZleba swrafad. qalaqi dangreuli iyo, magram kvlavac SesaZlebeli iyo masSi gamozamTreba. es iyo misi pirveli SesaZlebeli moqmedeba. mas hqonda saTanado maragebi da SeeZlo kampaniis ganaxleba gazafxulze. igi aRiarebda poloneTis damoukideblobas, rac ganapirobebda mis mimarT poloneli xalxis loialobas da Seavsebda misi erTguli jariskacebis rigebs.


napoleons aseve SeeZlo dabrunebuliyo vilnoSi, sadac mas datovebuli hyavda sakuTari Zalebi da hqonda saTanado maragebi. igi sakmaod aqtiurad ganixilavda winsvlis SeCerebis am or variants. magram es xom iqneboda misi gegmis CaSlis toli. misi Tavdapirveli gegma oc dReSi kampaniis gamarjvebiT dasrulebis Sesaxeb ukve ganuxorcielebeli iyo, magram mas kvlavac SeeZlo warmatebis miRweva, saWiro iyo mxolod rusebs SeeCerebinaT ukandaxeba da ebrZolaT! ufro metic, winsvlis SeCereba SesaZleblobas miscemda rusebs moexdinaT TavianTi Zalebis mobilizeba da napoleoni danarCeni evropisagan CamoeWraT. gazafxulamde Seyovneba gazrdida aseve parizSi garkveuli intrigebis realizaciis albaTobas.


kvlavac miiswrafvoda ra generaluri brZolis gamarTvisaken, napoleons rCeboda ori SesaZlebloba:gaegrZlebina gza peterburgisa da mefis dedaqalaqisaken, an gezi aeRo uZvelesi qalaqis - moskovisaken, romelic rusebisaTvis erT-erT uwmindes adgils warmoadgenda. dasasruls, mis nacvlad arCevani rusulma armiam gaakeTa: igi moskovisaken gaemarTa da napoleonic mis kvals gahyva. moskovamde manZili orasoTxmoc mils Seadgenda.
napoleoni vilnosTan Tvrameti dRe icdida; smolenskTan damatebiT Svidi dRe Seyovnda. orma kviram el-ariSTan CaSala egviptis kampania; am orma Seyovnebam yovelgvari sapatio Secdomis limiti amowura. mesame Secdoma fataluri Secdomis momaswavebeli iqneboda.


am dros, aleqsandres swrafi svliT mihyavda Tavisi jarebi da kidev erTxel Seaxsenebda napoleons mosalodneli Sedegebis Sesaxeb. general beningsenis mier gagzavnil dRis brZanebebSi, mefe werda:

rusebo! mterma gadmolaxa mdinare dvini da TqvenTan SebrZoleba surs. igi simxdaleSi gwamebT cils, vinaidan man ar icis an Tavs ityuebs rom ar icis Tqveni sistemis politika . . . sasowarkveTili mcdelobebi mxolod mis mier wamowyebul avanturasa da Seqmnil saxifaTi viTarebas Seesabameba; magram niSnavs es, rom Cvenc unda davkargoT sifxizle da Seqmnili viTarebiT gamowveuli upiratesobebi? SeZlebs ki igi am qalaqis droebiTi flobiT daipyros rusuli imperia da daimonos ocdaaTmilioniani mosaxleoba? sakuTari resursebisagan 800 miliT mowyvetili, igi gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSic ki ver gaeqceva karlos XII xvedrs. Cveni armiis da napoleonis ganadgurebaze Seficuli glexebis mier yoveli mxridan Seviwroebuli gana SeZlebs igi ukan daxevas?


. . . mteri sakmaod Rrmad SemoiWra Cvens teritoriaze, igi male iwvnevs Tavis Tavze mZime zamTars, SimSils da rusuli armiis siZlieres. jariskacebo! rodesac dadgeba SebrZolebis Jami, Tqveni imperatori gacnobebT amis Sesaxeb; igi gaxdeba Tqveni gmirobis mowme da giboZebT jildos gamoCenili siqvelisaTvis.3

es aris is mimarTva, romelic agvistoSi iqna gamocemuli da romelic Tavad napoleonis Rirsia! savaraudoa, rom napoleonic gaecno am mimarTvas:nebismier SemTxvevaSi es warmoadgenda im gafrTxilebis prototips, romelic aleqsandrem SeuTvala mas erTi wliT adre kolenkortis meSveobiT. magram napoleonma miiRo gadawyvetileba da mzad iyo mis gansaxorcieleblad. amaSi garkveuli logikac arsebobda, romelmac, samwuxarod, amjerad ar imuSava. misi marcxis mTavari mizezic swored im momentidan unda veZeboT, rodesac man gaacnobiera saqmeTa sxva mimarTulebiT warmarTvis realoba.


napoleoni marSiT gaemarTa moskovisaken da kvlavac generaluri brZolisaken miiswrafvoda. erT rameSi igi marTali gamodga:rusebi ar daTmobdnen TavianT wminda qalaqs ubrZolvelad. aleqsandrem generali kutuzovi miavlina barklais jarebis samarTavad da borodinosTan poziciebis gasamagreblad. napoleons damarcxebuli hyavda kutuzovi austerlicTan da SesZlebda mis damarcxebas borodinosTanac. am SemTxvevaSi gansxvaveba mxolod is iyo, rom es carieli gamarjveba iqneboda da meti araferi. albaT, am brZolaSi damarcxeba iyo umjobesi, maSin mas ukandaxeva xom ufro Tbil amindSi mouxdeboda. marSi borodinosken sakmaod warmatebuli gamodga. 5 ricxvSi frangebma kargad iomes da Sivardinos citadeli da mimdebare teritoria aiRes.


borodinos brZolis dros moxda yvelaferi risi moxdenac napoleons ar surda brZolis dros. rusebma moaswres maTTvis xelsayreli poziciebis dakaveba da maTi gamagreba safortifikacio nagebobebiT. maT hyavdaT asoci aTasamde meomari da hqondaT daaxloebiT eqvsasi zarbazani. maT winaaRmdeg napoleonma gamoiyvana ara naxevar milionamde jariskaci, romelic mas kampaniis dasawyisSi hyavda, aramed asociaTasamde meomari da eqvsasamde zarbazani. armiis Tavdapirveli raodenobis msgavsi Semcireba gamowveuli iyo im garemoebiT, rom napoleons uxdeboda gzadagza daetovebina garnizonebi parizTan misi mudmivi kavSiris uzrunvelsayofad.


ra Tqma unda borodino ar iyo idealuri SemTxveva, magram bolosdabolos es iyo is gadamwyveti brZola, romelsac ase mouTmenlad eloda napoleoni. aq gamarjvebisa da Semdeg moskovis aRebis Semdeg aleqsandre sabolood dasTanxmdeboda mis pirobebze. swored amaSi mdgomarebda napoleonis gegma. brZolis dRes 1812 wlis 7 seqtembers napoleonma gaaakeTa misTvis Cveuli morigi mimarTva meomrebisadmi, romelic naTlad asaxavda gardasul kampaniaTa sidiades:

meomrebo! es aris brZola, romelsac Tqven mouTmenlad elodiT. gamarjveba axla mxolod Tqvenzea damokidebuli; gamarjveba Cven unda dagvrCes. es iqneba Cveni Zlierebis, kargi gamozamTrebisa da samSobloSi Cveni dabrunebis macne.
ibrZoleT iseTive SemarTebiT, rogorc ibrZodiT austerlicTan, fridlendTan, vitepskTan, smolenskTan; da Tqvens am gmirobas momavali Taobebi Seasxamen xotbas. dae Tqvan Tqvens Sesaxeb:igi monawileobda moskovis kedlebTan gamarTul udiades brZolaSi!4

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom frangebi bolomde ar icnobdnen TavianT adgilsamyofels. maT ar gaaCndaT adgilmdebareobis kargi rukebi. bertieris mier 6 seqtembers gamocemuli brZaneba saimperio gvardiis qveiTebis sardlis general lefabrisadmi miuTiTebda, rom isini imyofebian `en arriere de Majaisk~ [maJaiskTan]5, maSin rodesac sinamdvileSi es qalaqi borodinos meore mxares 25 milis daSorebiT mdebareobda. albaT amiT aixsneba is garemoebac, Tu ratom uwodes frangebma am brZolas moskovTan [mdinare] brZola, rodesac brZolis velTan realurad mdinare kalatSa mdebarebda.


napoleons Tan saukeTeso marSlebi axlda. misma germa iujinma SesZlo qalaqis dakaveba, xolo neim moaxerxa `sami isris~ saxeliT cnobili strategiuli punqtis aReba. acnobierebda ra, rom am mimarTulebiT garRveva ucilobeli gamarjvebis winapiroba iqneboda neim napoleons sTxova saimperio gvardiis rezervebis gadasrola. gvardiis sardali marSali besiersi SeewinaaRmdega Tavisi ukanaskneli rezervebis ase Sors gadasrolas, xolo napoleonma mxari dauWira mis am pozicias.


es iyo logikuri da gaTvlili winadadeba, magram man gamoricxa upirobo gamarjvebis SesaZlebloba da Sesabamisad aleqsandres mxridan samSvidobo iniciativis raime Sansi mainc, Tu aseTi rodesme arsebobda.
napoleonma cotaodeni Zalebi miaSvela neis da male brZola gaimarTa `didi citadelis~ saxeliT cnobil velze, romelic kargad gamagrebul maRlobze mdebarebda ocze meti damontaJebuli zarbazniT. flangebidan Semovlis mcdeloba araefeqturi iyo da Seteva ZiriTadad centridan xorcieldeboda.
saocrad sisxliani brZola gamodga. Setevaze gadasul frangebs rusuli zarbaznebidan Tu aTasobiT muSketidan wamosuli Wurvebis wvima egebeboda. brZolis veli daRupulebiT gaivso da gadawiTlda. iujinis, neisa da miuratis bolo Seteva warmatebuli aRmoCnda da `didi citadeli~ aRebul iqna. amis Semdeg citadelze ganTavsebuli zarbaznebis cecxli ukuqceul rusebs daatyda Tavs. miuratis kavaleria meTodurad Seudga gaqceuli rusebis ganadgurebas da albaT moaxdenda kidec maTi, rogorc efeqturi mebrZoli Zalis likvidacias. magram napoleonma uari Tqva devnaze da rusebi SedarebiT udanakargod ukuiqcnen.


borodinosTan gamarjveba ar iyo srulyofili, magram es mainc gamarjveba iyo. rusebma dakarges ormoci aTasamde meomari bagrationis CaTvliT, xolo frangebis danakargebi ocdacameti aTasamde meomars, maT Soris ormocamde daRupul Tu daWril generals Seadgenda. sul brZolaSi samocdaCvidmeti aTasi kaci daiRupa, rac arcTu ise didi danakargi iyo, Tu am brZolis masStabebiT vimsjelebT.


gza moskovisaken ukve xsnili iyo da napoleoni qalaqSi 1812 wlis 15 seqtembers Sevida. igi moeloda, rom mas eaxlebodnen qalaqis warCinebulTa warmomadgenlebi. amis nacvlad mas daxvda TiTqmis mitovebuli qalaqi, mxolod ramodenime aTasi mcxovrebiT, maT Soris cixidan axali gamoSvebuli arcTu cota damnaSaviT. napoleoni Sevida kremlSi; am Rames rusebma TavianT qalaqs cecxli waukides. frangebi uZlurni aRmoCndnen cecxlis stiqiasTan brZolaSi, vinaidan rusebs ar daetovebinaT xanZarsawinaaRmdego mowyobilobebi, Sesabamisad frangebma mxolod qalaqis daaxloebiT oci procentis gadarCena SeZles.


karga xans prevalirebda mosazreba, rom Tavad napoleonma gadawva qalaqi. arada es yovelgvar safuZvels iyo moklebuli. zamTari iwyeboda da misTvis xelsayreli iyo aq gamozamTreba. am mizniT ki mas swored is saxlebi sWirdeboda, romlebic xanZris dros bolomde daiwva. miuxedavad amisa moskovSi sakmaod darCa xeluxlebeli Senobebi, rac aq gamozamTrebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda.


napoleonma ramodenimejer gaugzavna Setyobineba peterburgSi myof aleqsandres, magram pasuxi ar miuRia. Sikrikebi daniSnulebis adgilze Casvlas ver axerxebdnen da maT Sua gzidan abrunebdnen. igive ganmeorda kutuzovTan mimarTebiT. zamTari axlovdeboda da saWiro iyo gadawyvetilebis miReba.


moskovTanac, smolenskis msgavsad ori arCevani iyo:darCena an wasvla. moskovidan mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT iyo SesaZlebeli wasvla, anu unda momxdariyo ukan gamobruneba. xanZris miuxedavad, jarisaTvis arsebobda uamravi maragi da sakmarisze meti TavSesafari. qalaqis dacvis organizeba SesaZlebeli iyo, xolo gazafxulTan erTad axali perspeqtivebic gamoCndeboda. Tumca, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom problemas warmoadgenda sakmaod myife momaragebis sistema, amasTan parizidan Sors didi xniT darCena garkveuli politikuri riskis faqtorsac Seicavda. SesaZlebeli iyo aseve, rom prusiasa da avstrias ruseTSi Seyovneba napoleonis sisustis niSnad aReqvaT, mis winaaRmdeg amxedrebuliyvnen da moexdinaT misi safrangeTisgan izolireba. miuxedavad amisa, moskovSi darCena mainc saukeTeso variants warmoadgenda. napoleonis erTguli mrCeveli grafi daru swored am rCevas iZleoda:

davrCeT aq . . . movawyoT kidev erTi banaki moskovSi da aq gavataroT zamTari. purisa da marilis gaWirveba namdvilad ar iqneba:danarCens kidev movipovebT. sakvebad usargeblo cxenebis gamoyenebac iqneba SesaZlebeli. rac Seexeba sacxovrebels, Tu saxlebi amisTvis ar iqneba sakmarisi, SeiZleba sxvadasxva saxis saTavsoebiT sargebloba. aq SevZlebT darCenas gazafxulamde, Semdeg ki SemogvierTdebian Cveni damatebiTi Zalebi da davasrulebT Cvens dapyrobiT kampanias.6

iyo momenti, rodesac TiTqos am arCevans unda gaemarjva. magram napoleonma sabolood mrCevlebis karnaxiT smolenskSi dabruneba gadawyvita. amiT mas SesaZlebloba miecemoda Seemoklebina sakuTari komunikaciebis qseli da mis dasacavad datovebuli jariskacebiTa da maragiT Seevso Tavisi armia. magram napoleoni amjeradac Seyovnda. 19 oqtombers qalaqSi Sesvlidan daaxloebiT ocdaTxuTmeti dRis Semdeg napoleonis armiam daiwyo xangrZlivi svla saxlisaken.


napoleoni varaudobda SedarebiT Tbili gziT, samxreTis marSrutiT dabrunebas. ukve acivebuli iyo; zamTari adreulad movida. magram gzaze mas rusebi gadaeRobnen. man isini daamarcxa, magram SiSobda, rom mowinaaRmdege moaxerxebda gadajgufebas da winaRudgeboda mis ukandaxevas. amitom napoleoni CrdiloeTis marSruts daadga borodinos gavliT, anu imave gzas, romliTac movida, gzas, romelic gacamtverebuli iyo da romelzec kazakebis meti arc araferi darCeniliyo. napoleons rom ebrZanebina saTanado dazvervis Catareba, aRmoaCenda, rom rusebi ukuiqcnen da samxreTis marSrutic gaaTavisufles. ase rom savsebiT SesaZlebeli iyo Semdgomi movlenebis Tavidan acileba.


moskovis datovebisas wamoiWra sakiTxi, Tu sad unda waeyvanaT daWrilebi. bevri, maT Soris generali repi miiCnevda, rom SesaZlebeli iyo daWrilebis moskovSi datoveba; rusebi Turqebi ar iyvnen da daWrilebs dasavluri standartebiT mouvlidnen. magram napoleons afiqrebda maTi usafrTxoeba da moiTxovda maT Tan wayvanas, mimarTavda ra reps:`me ar davtoveb aq Cems xalxs; ruseTis mTels saganZurs davTmob da erT kacsac ki ar davtoveb Cems ukan. Cven unda visargebloT cxenebiT, vagonebiT, marxilebiT - yvelaferi unda gamoviyenoT maT wasayvanad.~


adreul noemberSi zamTarma daiwyo Tavisi SurisZieba. meomrebi siarulis dros sikvdilamde iyinebodnen; gardacvlilebs mTlianad xdidnen tansacmels; cxenebs Wamdnen da Semdeg qurqad iyenebdnen. disciplina naklebad iyo, darCa mxolod gadarCenis instiqti. napoleoni Tavis jariskacebTan erTad midioda; nei ariergardSi iyo da usafrTxo ukandaxevas uzrunvelyofda, riTic cdilobda yvelas TvalSi `mamacTa Soris umamacesis~ saxeli daemkvidrebina. odinosa da viqtoris Zalebis mobilizebac ariergardSi garkveulwilad unarCunebda armias saomar SesaZleblobebs.


smolenski sul sxvanairi daxvdaT. Senobebi praqtikulad ganadgurebuli iyo, Sesabamisad, aq gamozamTreba praqtikulad SeuZlebeli Seiqna:armiis nawilebs svla dasavleTisaken unda gaegrZelebinaT.


gadasalaxi iyo bolo dabrkolebac: md. berezina. zamTari isedac sakmaod mkacri da daundobeli gamodga ukuqceuli armiis mimarT da Turme kidev erT xafangsac amzadebda. ruseTis am nawilSi naklebad yinavda da mdinare mTlianad ar iyo gayinuli; yinulze gadasvla rTuli iyo, xidebi ki - dangreuli. napoleoni savsebiT logikurad moeloda, rom mdinare gayinuli daxvdeboda da xidis gasamarTi mowyobiloba ori dRiT adre mietovebina gzaSi.


aq kidev erTxel gabrwyinda napoleonis genia; misma inJinrebma SeZles ori xidis ageba, erTi mebrZolebisTvis da erTi cxenebisa da marxilebisTvis. neis mier rusebis Semotevebisgan zurggamagrebulma armiam SesZlo xidebze gadasvla, romlebic Semdeg gaanadgures. devid Candleris SefasebiT mdinareze samdRiani gadasvlis ganmavlobaSi ubedur SemTxvevas 20-30,000 kombatanti da  30,000 arakombatanti emsxverpla.8 da mainc samxedro istoriaSi es iyo mdinareze gadasvlis erT-erTi saukeTeso SemTxveva da napoleons marTlac saqebi sityvebi ekuTvnis am eqstremalur viTarebaSi bolomde civi gonebis SenarCunebisaTvis. unda aRiniSnos, rom moskovidan ukan daxevisas man ufro meti principuloba da simtkice gamoiCina vidre moskovisaken mimavalma.


xazgasasmelia, rom udinosa da viqtoris SedarebiT axali Zalebis, xidis konstruqtorTa SemarTebuli moqmedebisa da neis ariergardis Zalisxmevis gareSe, yvelaferi dakarguli iqneboda.
armiis usafrTxod dagulebis Semdeg, napoleoni parizisaken 1812 wlis 5 dekembers gaemarTa. is aq ufro iyo saWiro. situacia gadaudeblad moiTxovda Sesustebuli poziciebis gamyarebas. 18 ricxvSi is ukve parizSi iyo, magram Ramis koSmari mxolod iwyeboda.
16 dekembers parizSi gamocemul
Grande Armee-is  29-e biuletenSi gamoqveynda Semdegi cnoba:

6 noembrisaTvis amindi sakmaod kargi iyo, da armiis svla sakmaod warmatebiT mimdinarebda. civi amindi 7 noembers daiwyo.; am dRidan yovel RamiT Cven vkargavdiT ramodenime aseul cxens. smolenskSi misulebs ukve aRar gvyavda kavaleriisa da artileriisaTvis gankuTvnili cxenebis umravlesoba . . . moulodnelad ufro acivda; 14, 15 da 16 noembers Termometri Teqvsmetidan Tvramet gradusamde yinvas uCvenebda . . . gzebi yinuliT iyo dafaruli; kavaleriis, artileriisa da satvirTo cxenebi yovel RamiT iRupebodnen ara aseulobiT aramed aTasobiT, gansakuTrebiT germanuli da franguli cxenebi . . . ramodenime dReSi 30,000-ze meti cxeni daiRupa. ase rom, armia romelic 6 noembers sakmaod karg mdgomareobaSi iyo, 14 noembrisaTvis sruliad gansxvavebul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda - praqtikulad darCa kavaleriis, artileriisa da transportis gareSe . . . am garTulebam, autanel yinvasTan erTad, Cven ususur mdgomareobaSi Cagvagdo. yvelam, visTvisac gangebas ar hqonda miniWebuli bedis ukuRma trialis gaZlebis niWi da visac aklda saTanado wvrTna, dakarga SemarTeba, xalisi da mxolod ubedurebisa da katastrifebis zmanebebis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda . . . 

sxvanairad rogor unda SevafasoT 1812 wlis kampania, Tu ar vaRiarebT im garemoebas rom es namdvili katastrofa iyo? katastrofa, magram SeiZleboda ki misi Tavidan acileba? kritikosebi miuTiTeben napoleonis jiut xasiaTze, gadaWarbebul ambiciaze, realobis SegrZnebis dakargvaze. pirveli ori SeniSvna udaod ukugdebul unda iqnes. yvelaferi rom Tavis dinebaze mieSva, kontinenturi sistema, romelic Tavisi warmatebis pirvel niSnebs imkida, Sewyvetda Tavis arsebobas da masTan erTad daimarxeboda misi imedebi samSvidobo molaparakebebze inglisis dayoliebis Taobaze. ufro metic, misi Semguebluri politika ruseTis mimarT aRqmul iqneboda mis sisusted da Sesabamisad moaxdenda garkveuli qmedebebis provocirebas prusiisa da TviT avstriis mxridan; yovelive amis Sedegad ki SeiZleboda Seqmniliyo axali koalicia mis winaaRmdeg.
visac eWvi epareba am daskvnaSi SeuZlia Tvali miadevnos 1813-1814 wlis kampaniaTa msvlelobas.


napoleons es kargad esmoda. mogvianebiT, igi mzad iyo eRiarebina, rom Secdoma dauSva espaneTis mimarT moqmedebiT, magram msgavsi sinanuli mas arasodes gamouTqvams 1812 wlis kampaniaze.


garkveulwilad marTlac SesaZlebelia napoleons brali davdoT realobis SegrZnebis dakargvaSi:mxolod ara politikuri situaciis ararealur xedvaSi, aramed ruseTis mefis axleburi politikisa da rusuli zamTriT gamowveuli problemebis arasaTanadod aRqmaSi.


da bolos, napoleonma ver gaacnobiera, rom araTu erTi, aramed aTi gamarjvebac ki ver aiZulebda aleqsandres damjdariyo molaparakebebis magidasTan. amis Sesaxeb aleqsandrem pirdapir auwya napoleons kolinkortis meSveobiT, aseve - Tavis mimarTvaSi, magram napoleonma ar Seismina, ar gaiTvaliswina misi sityvebi.


rac Seexeba zamTars, napoleoni arasdros ar gegmavda moskovSi da TviT smolenskSi Sesvlasac ki. igi nel-nela Seityues qveynis siRrmeSi. magram gviani arasdros ar yofila. moskovSi Sesvlamde igi yovlad umizezod orjer Seyovnda. magram mesame Seferxeba moskovSi namdvilad fataluri gamodga. mas rom gamoecxadebina gamarjveba da ukan gamobrunebuliyo an moskovSive gamoezamTrebina, yvelaferi sasikeTod warimarTeboda. oTxi, Tundac sami kviriT adre moskovidan gamosvla mas Tavidan aacilebda im sirTuleebis udides nawils, romlis gamovlac Semdeg mouxda ukandaxevis dros. moskovSi gamozamTrebis SemTxvevaSi igi dakargavda cxenebs (sakvebis ararsebobis gamo), magram axali cxenebiTa da maragiT igi gazafxulze aRiWurveboda da Tavis kampaniasac warmatebiT gaagrZelebda.


. . . magram man ase ar imoqmeda, xolo msgavsi araprincipuloba da Seferxeba napoleonsa da masTan erTad am kampaniaSi myof Zalebs ganuzomel fasad daujdaT.

 


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