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~didebis nakvalevze~

stendalis kariera da napoleoni

 

devid marqxami (David Markham), napoleonis
saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis prezidenti

Targmnilia napoleonis sazogadoebis
wevris beqa dvalis


 
     msoflioSi stendalis ad cnobili mari-anri beili (1783-1842),  warmoadgens Cveni epoqis erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan literaturul figuras. stendali cxovrobda da moRvaweobda gardamaval periodSi. igi moeswro Zveli reJimis napoleonis epoqiT Secvlas, monarqiis dabrunebas da ivlisis revolucias, safrangeTsa da mTlianad evropaSi axali eris damkvidrebas.
    ra Tqma unda am epoqis ZiriTad figuras napoleon bonaparti warmoadgenda. misi moRvaweoba dResac stimulis mimcemia bevrisTvis, xolo TanamedroveTaTvis igi saswaulTan asocirdeboda. ara erTma pirovnebam gza gaikvala swored napoleonis didebis nakvalevze, maT Soris iyo anri beilic. stendalis yvela mniSvnelovan novelaSi napoleons ZiriTadi roli ganekuTvneba misi gmirebis bedisweris warmarTvaSi da es ar warmoadgens SemTxveviTobas. misi kariera bevr SemTxvevaSi mogvagonebs napoleonis karieras, romlis dawyebac gavleniani nacnobebis arsebobam ganapiroba. SemdgomSic, stendalis karieris aRmasvla Tu daRmasvla napoleon bonapartis karieris msgavsad warimarTeboda. Tavis avtobiografiul nawarmoebSi `henri brulardis cxovreba~ igi acxadebs: `me napoleonTan erTad daveci 1814 wlis aprilSi.~
    napoleonis mier Zalauflebis dakargvidan xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi napoleons ar dauweria Tavisi novelebi. Tumca misi nawarmoebebis gmirTa xasiaTebSi asaxva hpova misma napoleoniseulma karieram da vaterloosTan napoleonis damarcxebiT gamowveulma misma mwuxarebam. stendalisa da napoleonis karierebs Soris mWidro kavSiri Tanabrad SesamCnevia, rogorc napoleonis xanis istoriis Senswavleli studentisaTvis, aseve stendalis nawarmoebebis mkiTxvelisaTvis. es werili swored aRniSnuli kavSiris warmoCenas isaxavs miznad, am sakiTxze Tavad stendalis komentarebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebis meSveobiT.

 

qalaqi grenobli pirveli imperiis dros

stendali Tavis mSobliur qalaq grenobls Tavidanve ver egueboda da parizSi Tavgadasavlebisaken iswrafvoda. SemdgomSi man aRiara, rom misi parizisaken ltolva ganpirobebuli iyo grenoblisadmi siZulviliT, sadac igi daTrgunuli iyo mamis mbrZaneblobiT da repetitoris religiuri swavlebebiT, iseve rogorc mTlianad grenoblis provincializmiT. ase rom, 1799 wels parizSi Casvlisas, briumeris (9 noembris) samxedro gadatrialebis Sedegad xelisuflebaSi napoleonis mosvlis Semdeg mas asazrdoebda ukeTesi, diadi momavlis imedi. Tumca, miuxedavad aseTi ganwyobisa, igi imedgacruebuli darCa rogorc pariziT, aseve sakuTari surviliT gaegrZelebina swavla maTematikaSi. rogorc Cans, realuri parizi sruliad Seusabamo aRmoCnda ocnebis qalaqis Sesaxeb mis warmodgenebTan. man swavlas guli veRar daudo da misi janmrTelobac uaresobisaken Seicvala. misTvis sabednierod, mis mamas hyavda parizSi mcxovrebi naTesavi saxelad noel daru. darus mniSvnelovani politikuri gavlena hqonda rogorc parizSi, aseve grenoblSi, axlo urTierTobebSi imyofeboda mTavrobis wevrebTan, taleiranis CaTvliT.1 swored es pirovneba da misi Svilebi pieri da marciali uwevdnen mfarvelobas stendals misi cxovrebis napoleonis periodis ganmavlobaSi.
    garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi stendali dakavebuli iyo mxolod xelovnebiT, literaturiTa da sasiyvarulo TavgadasavlebiT. pier darus surda misgan ganaTlebuli adamiani gamosuliyo, maSin rodesac marcials mis ampluad parizis quCebSi monavarde dendi esaxeboda. nebismieri epoqis axalgazrda adamianis,  msgavsad, ra Tqma unda, stendalisaTvis ufro metad marcialis mosazrebebi iyo misaRebi, Tumca misTvis sasargeblo ueWvelad pieris zegavlena aRmoCnda. 1799 wels, umuSevari da imedgacruebuli naTesavis sakuTar saxlSi miRebidan mokle vadaSi, darus ojaxma SesZlo stendalisaTvis gamoeZebna samxedro saministros ramdenime aseul mosamsaxures Soris erT-erTi rigiTi moxelis Tanamdeboba. am saministroSi uSualod pier darus generaluri mdivnis Tanamdeboba ekava. es stendalisaTvis metad mniSvnelovan movlenas warmoadgenda.
    samxedro saministros mooqrovili panelebiT morTul did oTaxSi axalgazrda daru dRe da Rames asworebda; napoleoni mas uyviroda,  da pier daru, Tavis mxriv,  xariviT uyviroda mis qvemdgom moxeleebs...
    mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi igi (stendali)  samxedro saministroSi magidas ujda da darusaTvis werilebis weriT iyo dakavebuli…. . . daru mis daxmarebaze mniSvnelovanwilad iyo damokidebuli. male anric daavadda ~gareuli xaris~ SiSis sindromiT da am grZnobas igi momavalSic ar miutovebia.

Cvens xelT arsebuli yvela wyaroTi stendali savsebiT ususuri aRmoCnda am axal postze. Cvidmeti wlis asakis anri srulad iyo Sepyrobili idealizmiTa da momnusxveli siyvarulisa da literaturuli cxovrebis surviliT. aqedan gamomdinare, samxedro saministros mkacri garemo misi imedgacruebisa da frustrirebis safuZvels warmoadgenda. ufro metic, muSaobis dros igi sakmaod bevr Secdomas uSvebda, risTvisac mas kritikis risxva atydeboda xolme. brulardSi stendali wers: `darus ofisSi Sesvlisas samxedro saministroSi yvelas akankalebda, me mis karebze Sexedvisac ki meSinoda.~ misi samuSao pirobebis Sesaxeb yvelaze cnobil gancxadebaSi igi werda `. . . mas [darus] sikvdiliviT eSinoda napoleonis, me ki sikvdiliviT meSinoda misi.~

pier-antuan daru (gros naxati)

marcial daru, pier-antuan darus Zma da stendalis axlo megobari

magram umeteswilad darus risxvas stendalis mimarT cvlida keTilganwyoba da sikeTe rac masze, rogorc naTesavze pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT iyo ganpirobebuli. amas mniSvnelovnad uwyobda xels napoleonis karieris aRmasvlac. momavali imperatori amzadebda italiaSi Setevas avstrielebze alpebSi CrdiloeTis marSrutisa da saxelganTqmuli wminda bernardis gasasvlelis gavliT. pier daru inspeqtorad iqna daniSnuli da napoleonTan erTad gaemgzavra italiaSi. rodesac man stendals SesTavaza daekavebina meore leitenantis Tanamdeboba dragunTa me-6 polkSi da SeerTeboda italiaSi myof Zalebs, stendalis sixaruls sazRvari ar hqonda. rogorc iqna mas mieca SesaZlebloba enaxa msoflio gmiri da galanturi jariskacis ampluaSi.
    miuxedavad imisa, rom mas yovelTvis surda yofiliyo galanturi jariskaci, igi arasdros ar yofila aseTi. principSi msgavsi rolisTvis mas arc hqonia aranairi safuZveli (bunebrivia, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom aseT safuZvlad ar miviCnevT didi fantaziis unars); igi ar flobda arc sabrZolo xelovnebas da ar gaaCnda arc mxedrisTvis aucilebeli Cvevebi. sabednierod, pierma stendals miuCina erTi meomari raTa misTvis gzadagza gamoemuSavebina jariskacisaTvis aucilebeli Tvisebebi. alpebSi mogzaurobis Semdeg stendali flobda ufro met gamocdilebas da realistur warmodgenas jariskacis cxovrebis Sesaxeb. JenevaSi Jan-Jak rusos saxlSi stumrobis Semdeg stendali da misi axali damcveli gaemarTnen italiisaken. stendali napoleonis nakvalevs misdevda, cotaTi Tu CamorCeboda Tavad napoleonis svlas alpebSi. misi gamocdileba mniSvnelovnad amaRlda fort bardTan franguli armiisaTvis Seqmnili problemis Semdeg. wminda bernardis gasasvlelis

forti bardi, romelsac Tavis droze napoleonis winsvlis SeCereba evaleboda,
magram bonapartma ubralod Semouara mas.

aRmosavleTiT mdebare am fortma seriozuli problema Seuqmna napoleonis mier Setevis ganxorcielebas alpebSi. am fortis damcvelebi bolomde uryevad icavdnen TavianT poziciebs da uars ambobdnen danebebodnen napoleons. am mizeziT napoleonma bolos arCia gverdi aevlo am fortisTvis. es garkveul safrTxesTan iyo dakavSirebuli vinaidan jariskacebs fortis qvemexebis moqmedebis arealSi, sruliad Ria da daucvel sivrceSi unda gaevloT. brulardSi stendali ase aRwers am epizods:`rodesac me mivuaxlovdi am sruliad Ria sivrces da rodesac igi [misi Tanmxlebi piri] gaudga gzas me davedevne mas, raTa Cemi simamace meCvenebina. es iyo pirveli SemTxveva, rodesac me cecxlis qveS movyevi.~ Tavis das paulinas igi werda:
    `SemiZlia giTxra, rom misi [wminda bernardis gasasvlelis] sirTule gazviadebulia. samxedro SenaerTs igi aranair sirTules ar uqmnis. me gaviare gacilebiT rTuli, bardis forti. warmoidgine sent-polis velis msgavsi triali mindori, mis SuagulSi goraki, romelzec forti mdebareobs, saidanac pistoletis sasrol manZilze mdebareobs savali biliki. fortidan samasi futis moSorebiT Cven gadavuxvieT gzidan da gavemarTeT gorakisaken, iqidan momavali uwyveti cecxlis qveS. Cveni cxenebi did problemas gviqmnidnen, vinaidan yoveli xuTi Tu eqvsi nabijis gavlis Semdeg yalyze dgebodnen TiToeuli tyviisa Tu yumbaris gasroliT SeSinebulni.~
    stendali ar iyo erTaderTi pirovneba, romelic msubuqi iumoriT udgeboda alp[ebSi laSqrobas. Tavad napoleoni wminda bernardis aRmosavleTiT mogzaurobis Sesaxeb werda:`pirveli konsuli wminda bernardis mwvervalidan daeSva Tovlsa da wylis nakadebSi srialiTa da kotrialiT.~
aRniSnuli laSqrobisas stendalma pirvelad gaacnobiera, rom yvela jariskaci rodi warmoadgenda iseTi gmiruli xasiaTis mqone pirovnebas, rogoric mas Tavad surda gamxdariyo. sinamdvileSi jariskacebi sakmao uxeSobiT gamoirCeodnen da yovel wuTs mzad iyvnen raime moeparaT TanamebrZolebisaTvis, maT aseve saocrad SurdaT oficrebisa, romlebic fexiT siarulis nacvlad cxenebs daagelvebdnen. yovelive amis miuxedavad, aRniSnul laSqrobas mainc axlda Tavisi xibli, rac sxva mizezTa Soris upirveles yovlisa, saocrad energiuli pirovnebis napoleonis xelmZRvanelobis qveS yofniT iyo ganpirobebuli. albaT am periodidan daiwyo stendalis uRrmesi pativiscema napoleonis mimarT. es grZnoba yvelazxe naTlad gamoxatulia misi nawarmoebis The Charterhouse of Parma SesavalSi, sadac igi aRniSnavs:`1796 wlis 15 maiss generali bonaparti Tavis axalgazrda armias, romelmac sul mcire xniT adre gadakveTa lodis xidi, SeuZRva milanSi da mTels msoflios daanaxa, rom mravali saukunis Semdeg keisarsa da aleqsandres memkvidre gamouCnda.~
    keisarsa da aleqsandres SeiZleba marTlac hyavdaT memkvidre, magram igi marto ar iyo stendalis fiqrebSi. stendalis adreuli idealisturi warmodgenebi parizze Secvala milaniT da mTlianad italiiT gamowveulma saocarma STabeWdilebebma. xelovneba, musika, enTuziazmiT savse masebi, da rac yvelaze mTavaria, mSvenieri mandilosnebi iqcnen stendalis siyvarulis obieqtebad. swored milanis TeatrSi ixila man pirvelad misi saocnebo gmiri da arapirdapiri mfarveli, Tavad pirveli konsuli napoleon bonaparti.

~La Scala~-s saqveynod cnobili Teatri,
sadac stendalma pirvelad ixila napoleoni

stendali saocrad iyo Seyvarebuli milansa da italiaze. es arc iyo gasakviri. is cxovrobda da general petis damxmared muSaobda addas sasaxleSi, iseT atmosferoSi, romelic aRafrTovanebda nebismier saxelganTqmul da sazogadoebaSi gamoCenil pirovnebas, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT idealisturi SexedulebebiT aRsavse axalgazrdaze. mogvianebiT igi gadavida kaza bovaraSi da kvlavac gaagrZela muSaoba klod petisTan, romelic imJamad safrangeTis respublikis sagangebo da sruluflebian elCs warmoadgenda. saRamoobiT ewyoboda milanis elitis Sexvedrebi safrangeTis samxedro da diplomatiuri korpusis maRal warmomadgenlebTan. es yovelive saocrad izidavda axalgazrda anris da gaereoda xolme warCinebul sazogadoebaSi.
    stendals dRis ganmavlobaSic ar aklda gasarTobi. misi sakmaod mniSvnelovani samuSao ar arTmevda bevr dros. mas SesaZlebloba hqonda moenaxulebina istoriuli RirSesaniSnaobani, Zeglebi da damtkbariyo milanois saocrad momxiblavi atmosferoTi. igi saocrad bevrs kiTxulobda, ris Sesaxebac sakmaod xSirad aRniSnabda Tavis nawerebSi. magaliTad 1801 wlis Tvramet aprils man Tavis dRiurSi Semdegi saxis Canaweri gaakeTa:`mas Semdeg rac me fiqri Sevwyvite seniora martinze, amJamad saladinize, me sakmaod intensiurad vkiTxulob la harps. me ukve wavikiTxe misi Lucee-is I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII da VIII tomebi.~
    rac Seexeba mis sasiyvarulo cxovrebas, sxva mraval sikeTesTan erTad igi `dajildovebul~ iqna iseTi sakmaod cnobili `socialuri avadmyofobiT,~ rogoricaa sifilisi. es avadmyofoba sikvdilamde awuxebda stendals da misi mravali tanjvis mizezs warmoadgenda.
    male stendals daakisres iseTi uflebamosilebebis ganxorcieleba, romelic ufro axlos iyo leitenantis funqciebTan. igi gadayvanil iqna me-6 dragunTa polkSi da gagzavnil iqna patara qalaq bagnoloSi. rogor Cveulebriv sCveviaT xolme axalgazrdebs, igi enTuziazmiT Sexvda Tavis axal ampluas. mas sakuTari Tavi warmoedgina axalgazrda dendiT, romelsac uniforma da daSna amSvenebda. Tumca male aRmoaCina, rom samxedro cxovreba SeiZleba sakmaod mosawyeni iyos gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca ar imyofebi iseT kulturul centrSi rogoric milania. wignebis, kulturuli garemosa da qalebis sazogadoebis naklebobam male imedebi gaucrua stendals. sabednierod, man SeZlo     gamoeyenebina Tavisi naTesauri kavSiri darusTan da gadayvanil iqna asistentad general klod miSos samxedro danayofSi, romelic milanSi iyo dislocirebuli. ra Tqma unda, mas Seeqmna garkveuli problemebi am transferTan dakavSirebiT. mas ar hqonda Sesabamisi rangi, da rodesac darum Seityo aRniSnuli transferis Sesaxeb, SZecvala gadawyvetileba. am postze stendali rva Tvis ganmavlobaSi imyofeboda da daru am drois ganmavlobaSi daJinebiT moiTxovda misgan dragunTa me-6 polkSi dabrunebas. bolos, 1801 wlis seqtemberSi man daakmayofila darus moTxovna. samxedro cxovrebiT ukmayofilo, italiiT gadaRlili da gauaresebuli janmrTelobis mqone stendali dabrunda grenoblSi. sami Tvis Semdeg ki igi kvlav parizSi gaemgzavra, Tumca amJamad mas ar surda kvlavac esargebla darus mfarvelobiT.

stendali 1807 wels

stendalis cxovrebis Semdgomi ramdenime weli, rbilad rom vTqvaT, ar iyo damakmayofilebeli. uiRblo gamodga misi mcdeloba mwerlobaSi Tu biznesSi, mas sul ufro awuxebda mousvenroba da siRaribe. napoleonis imperiuli zraxvebiT damwuxrebul stendalze sakmaod didi STabeWdileba moaxdina evropaSi datrialebulma qariSxalma. mogvianebiT igi werda:
    `safrangeTis armiam miatova bulonis banaki da Caeba kontinentur omSi, romelsac damatebiTi brwyinvaleba unda SeeZina imperatoris samxedro reputaciisaTvis da aeyvana didebis iseT mwvervalze, romelzec evropas arcerTi suvereni ar unaxavs Sarlemanis Semdeg.~
    stendalma gadawyvita xelmeored ecada da daerwmunebina darus ojaxi, rom igi mxardaWeris Rirsi iyo. am gadawyvetilebas mohyva sakmaod intensiuri mimoweris kampania, xSir vizitebTan erTad. misma megobrulma urTierTobam pier darus meuRle aleqsandrinTan SesaZlebeli gaxada skeptikos darusTan saerTo enis gamonaxva. darus, imJamad imperiis hercogsa da imperiis armiis mTavar intendants, SeeZlo nebismieri karieris xelSewyoba an misi damsxvreva. sabednerod, amjerad man gadawyvita kidev erTxel daxmareboda Tavis naTesavs.

aleqsandrin daru (davidis naxati)

polina beili, stendalis da

1806 wlis oqtomberSi stendali dauaxlovda marcial darus, romelic brunsvikis sahercogos finansTa intendantad dainiSna. mcire xnis Semdeg, stendalmac miiRo dawinaureba - igi brunsvikis samxedro komisris pirvel moadgiled dainiSna, xolo Semdeg - samxedro komisrad. 1808 wels man marcialis Tanamdeboba daikava da   saimperio sakiTxebSi intendantis uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebas. es iyo erT-erTi yvelaze maRali da prestiJuli Tanamdeboba, da swored amas aRniSnavda stendali 1808 wlis maisSi Tavisi dis paulinasadmi miweril werilSi:
    `oTxi wlis win me vcxovrobdi parizSi, mqonda mxolod erTi wyvili Zirgavardnili fexsacmeli, xolo Suagul zamTarSi gasaTbobad cecxlis da saxlis gasanaTeblad sanTlis danTebac ar SemeZlo. aq ki me ukve adamianurad vcxovrob: viReb auracxel werils germanelebisagan, romlebic me `monseniors~ miwodeben; frangi didebulebi `baton intendantad~ momixsenieben; generlebi modian CemTan vizitebiT; biReb peticiebs, vwer werilebs, vsayvedurob mdivnebs, davdivar oficialur sadilebze, vmgzavrob etliT da vkiTxulob Seqspirs. magram parizSi me mainc ufro bednieri viyavi.~
    1809 wels stendali ewvia jer strasburgs, Semdeg – venas. am mogzaurobisas man gaiara germanuli qalaqi stendali, romlis saxelic man Semdgom literaturul fsevdonimad gamoiyena. venisken mgzavrobisas SeeCexa pirvelad stendali omis saSinelebebs. swored iq frontis wina xazTan miaxloebisas ixila man Tavisi TvaliT dangreuli qalaqebi, daRupul meomarTa daumarxavi cxedrebi, gaveranebuli adgilebi. stendali SeZra naxulma. 5 maiss igi Tavis dRiurSi werda:
`rodesac Cven xids mivadeqiT, adamianebis cxedrebi da mkvdari cxenebi, maTi ricxvi xidze ocdaaTs aRwevda; Cven iZulebuli viyaviT maTi umravlesoba mdinareSi gadagveyara, romelic sakmaod ganieri iyo; xididan oTxasi nabijiT daSorebiT dinebis mimarTulebiT davinaxeT gaSeSebuli cxeni: es iyo saocrad SemaZrwunebeli sanaxaoba. qalaqi ebersbergi mTlianad iwvoda, quCa, romelic Cven gaviareT gvamebiT iyo savse, maTi umetesoba daRupuli da damwvari frangi jariskaci iyo. zogierTi maTgani imdenad mZimed iyo damwvari, rom maTi sxeulis adamianur formas Znelad Tu gaarCevdiT. zog adgilas gvamebi erT adgilas iyo dagrovebuli; me vakvirdebodi maT saxeebs. xidze vnaxe warCinebuli germanelis cxedari romlis Tvalebi kvlavac Ria iyo; germanuli SemarTeba, erTguleba da sikeTe iyo gamosaxuli mis saxeze, romelzec mcire melanqoliasac amoikiTxavdiT.~
    stendalis venaSi yofnis periodi sakmaod nayofieri aRmoCnda. man sakmarisze metiZalisxmeva gaswia, raTa bolos da bolos daerwmunebina pier daru, rom igi namdvilad imsaxurebda yovlisSemZle grafis mier masze gaweul amagsa da mfarvelobas. ufro metic igi ufro metad dauaxlovda pieris mSvenier meuRles grafinia aleqsandrins. Tumca mas saocrad enatreboda parizi. noemberSi pieri da aleqsandrini gaeSurnen parizisaken, xolo ori Tvis Semdeg maT stendalic SeuerTda. aq man Seityo axali ambavi, romelmac igi kidev erTxel daarwmuna darus mier mis mimarT gamoCenil gulisxmierebaSi. eWvs gareSea, aleqsandrinis Sesabamisi mecadineobiTac, pier darum uzrunvelyo stendalius daniSvna saxelmwifo sabWos auditorad. amgvarad, stendali gaxda imperiis erT-erTi maRali Tanamdebobis piri. am postma ganapiroba stendalis sakmaod maRali Semosavalic. TiTqos es Tanamdeboba ar iyo sakmarisi, male igi damatebiT dainiSna gvirgvinis angariSTa, SenobaTa da avejis inspeqtorad. mis uflebamosilebebSi Sedioda aseve versalis, fontenblusa da luvris marTva.

es iyo stendalis cxovrebaSi ubednieresi periodi, romlis dros asrulda misi ocneba da igi sapatio stumrad iqca sazogadopebis yvelaze maRali fenebisaTvis. igi eswreboda mraval sazogadoebrivad RirsSesaniSnav movlenas da urTierToba hqonda iseT warCinebul adamianebTan, rogorebic iyvnen napoleonis debi karolin miurati da paulin borgeze, aseve princi meternixi, sofi gei, q-ni rekamie, q-ni talieni da q-ni de stali. mas SesaZlebloba hqonda Tavisi TvaliT enaxa, Tu rogor xatavda Jak-lui davidi da Tavisi uaryofiTi Sefasebac gamoerTva mis mimarT:
    `axlaxans vixile davidis naxati. is sruli araraobaa . . . ufro metic, davids ar hyofnis imdeni inteligentoba, rom dafaros Tavisi ubadruki amaoeba da ganuwyvetliv ar gausvas xazi sakuTari mosazrebebis upiratesobas.~
    ra Tqma unda, imperiis periodis am udidesi mxatvris kritika stendalis mxridan mis gazrdil siamayesa da egos unda mivaweroT.
    parizSi yofnis warmatebuli periodis ganmavlobaSi stendali srulad gamoiyenebda im gamocdilebasa da SemarTebas, romelic mas miRebuli hqonda italiasa da centralur evropaSi. napoleonis varskvlavma kidev erTxel misca mas axali SesaZleblobebi, Tumca amjerad es ar iyo napoleonis `amomavali~ varskvlavi. napoleons gadaewyvita SeWriliyo ruseTSi da pier daru mTlianad am axali samxedro kampaniis mosamzadebel samuSaoebSi iyo CarTuli. imperatoris msgavsad, stendalsac sjeroda, rom es iqneboda swraf gamarjvebaTa seriis kidev erTi epizodi, da mas surda Tavisi TvaliT exila igi. mas neba darTes SeerTeboda did armias da gamgzavrebuliyo ruseTisaken Semodgomaze. gamgzavrebamde mas audiencia hqonda  imperatrica mari-luizasTan da mieca SesaZlebloba enaxa romis mefe da imperiis princi. es faqti naTlad mianiSnebs stendalis maRali mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, razec igi 1812 wlis 23 ivliss sen-klodis sasaxleSi werda Tavis das - paulinas:`Cemo uZvirfaseso, momeca brwyinvale SesaZlebloba momewera SenTvis. me mivemgzavrebi am saRamos Svid saaTze dvinis napirebisaken. me aq movedi, raTa mimeRo misi udidebulesoba imperatricas gankargulebebi. man pativi damdo da ramdenime wuTi mesaubra Cems mier gasavleli gzis, mgzavrobis xangrZlivobisa da sxva sakiTxTa Sesaxeb. Semdeg me vewvie mis udidebulesoba romis princs, magram mas eZina da qalbatonma monteskium miTxra, rom SeuZlebeli iyo misi naxva sam saaTamde; ase rom me ori saaTi momiwevs lodini. es ki arcTu ise mosaxerxebelia, roca oficialur formasa da manJetebSi xar mosili. sabednierod me gamaxsenda is upiratesobebi, romlebsac me inspeqtoris posti maniWebs da sasaxleSi mosacdelad oTaxi moviTxove. Cemi es Txovna dauyovnebliv daakmayofiles.~

ruseTSi yofnis periodSi gancdilma da naxulma saocrad mZime daRi daasva stendalis mexsierebas. omis WuWyian saqmeSi igi ise CaerTo, rogorc arasdros Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom omiT gamowveuli misi SiSic adeqvaturad gaizarda. smolenskSi Casvlisas man es qalaqi cecxlis alSi gaxveuli ixila. rodesac xanZarma safrTxe Seuqmna maT transports, stendali iZulebuli gaxda organizacia gaewia damcavi zomebisaTvis. rusuli kampaniis ganmavlobaSi man saxeli gaiTqva, rogorc krizisul viTarebebSi TavSekavebulma da civi gonebis SenarCunebis unaris mqone pirovnebam. misi erTi SexedviT gulgrili werilebSi naTlad aris asaxuli misi STabeWdilebebi. erT-erT werilSi igi werda:aq yofniT me namdvilad ara var bednieri. rogor icvleba adamiani !  Cemi adrindeli swrafva axlisaken srulad aris daTrgunuli. mas Semdeg rac vixile milani da italia, axla yvelaferi araraobad meCveneba. gind daijere, gind ara, zogjer cremlebs Zlivs vikaveb. am barbarosul oromtrialSi, Cemi suli verafers ver egueba. yvelaferi aris uxeSi, WuWyiani, fizikurad da moralurad gaxrwnili.
    stendalma sakuTari TvaliT ixila moskovis gadawva misi gareubnebidan. mTlianad Seqmnili viTarebiT ukmayofilos garkveuli Sveba mieca, rodesac napoleonma gasca brZaneba moskovis datovebis Sesaxeb. arada erT dros stendals imedi hqonda, rom kremlSi gamarTul koncertebs ixilavda:`rogorc sCans me zamTars aq gavatareb; vimedovneb rom gaimarTeba koncertebi. ueWvelia, Teatraluri warmodgenebi gaimarTeba xelmwifis karze, magram romeli msaxiobebi miiReben masSi monawileobas sakiTxavi ai es aris.~
    stendali dainiSna samxedro momaragebis komisrad da gagzavnil iqna smolenskSi samSoblosaken momavali armiisaTvis proviziis mosamzadeblad. kvlavac savse iyo ra imedebiT, 16 oqtombers igi grafinia darus werda:
    `amJamad me maqvs pativi vicxovro metad Tavisebur xalxTan. erTi pirovnebis garda Cveni saubrebi friad mosawyen xasiaTs atarebs; Cven vsaubrobT mxolod seriozul sakiTxebze da amis meSveobiT gamovxatavT Cvens TviTkmayofilebas, dausruleblad, saaTebis ganmavlobaSi vuxsniT erTmaneTs iseT sakiTxebs, romelTa axsna-ganmarteba Tavisuflad aris SesaZlebeli sul raRac aT wuTSi. sxva mxriv yvelaferi kargad mimdinareobs; Cven qalebi ukanasknelad poloneTSi vixileT da am danaklisis sakompensaciod cecxlTan vTbebiT xolme.~
    iyo SemTxveva, rodesac stendali da misi TanamebrZolebi bewvze gadaurCnen kazakebis xeliT sikvdils da isini mxolod xSirma nislma ixsna.

stendali safrangeTis armiis ZiriTadi birTvisagan gansxvavebiT sakmaod swrafad brundeboda samSobloSi. man mdinare berezina mis mier mikvleuli fonis saSualebiT gadalaxa, da gverdi auqcia sakmaod gadatvirTul xids, riTac ixsna rogorc sakuTari aseve Tanmxleb pirTa sicocxle. devid Candleris SefasebiT aRniSnuli mdinaris gadakveTisas daaxloebiT 20-30,000 kombatanti da 30,000-mde arakombatanti daiRupa. stendalma gaagrZela Tavisi svla evropaSi da 1813 wels parizSi Cavida. man uSualod gaxda monawile msoflio istoriis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi movlenisa. ruseTSi gamovlili Tavgadasavlebis Semdeg cxovreba parizSi metad monotonuri eCveneboda. misi bediswera napoleonis varskvlavis msgavsad warimarTa. igi gagzavnil iqna germaniaSi sadac ixila bauTsenis brZola. igi moicva dabneulobam da gaurkveveli momavliT gamowveulma SeSfoTebam. swored es grZnobebi gamosWvivis vaterloos brZolis aRwerisas mis nawarmoebSi The Charterhouse of Parma.
swored aRniSnuli kampaniisas mieca mas SesaZlebloba piradad Sexvedroda napoleons. igi imyofeboda kazakebis SeteviT panikaSi Cavardnil jariskacTa SenaerTTan erTad. napoleoni am faqtiT friad ganrisxda da srulad gamoiZia es SemTxveva. stendalis gancxadebiT, igi paradad iqna dakiTxuli am SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebiT.
    imperiis dacemis wina periodSi stendalma kidev erTxel gauwia samsaxuri napoleons. igi daniSnes grenoblisa da daufinis regionis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad. igi sakmaod enrgiulad axorcielebda dakisrebul movaleobebs, miuxedavd im garemoebisa, rom grenoblis mkvidrni arcTu didi xalisiT TanamSromlobdnen adamianTan romelmac didi xnis win miatova mSobliuri qalaqi. Tumca, mis mier gaweul Zalisxmevas sakmaod maRali Sefaseba mieca TviTmxilvelebis mier. igi garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi dabrunda parizSi da gaxda mowme imperatrica mari-luizas da romis axalgazrda mefis gandevnisa.
    napoleonis dacemis Semdeg stendali iZulebuli gaxda arCevani gaekeTebina. Tumca mas hqonda realuri SesaZlebloba daekavebina sakmaod maRali Tanamdeboba axal mTavrobaSi, man uari ganacxada safrangeTSi darCenaze. 1814 wels igi milanSi gaemgzavra sadac 1821 wlamde imyofeboda. amis Semdeg Seqmnil stendalis nawarmoebebSi napoleoni gansakuTrebuli SaravandediT aris mosili.
SeiZleba Tamamad iTqvas, rom stendalis pirovnebad Camoyalibeba mniSvnelovnad ganapiroba napoleonis didebulma epopeam. upasuxismgeblo, uxeSi axalgazrda kacidan igi Camoyalibda gonier da pasuxismgeblobis maRali grZnobis mqone pirovnebad. stendalma gamoscada napoleonis eris dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi. igi xedavda imperiis marTvis sistemas sakmaod maRali gadasaxedidan da gancvifrebuli iyo warCinebulobis mixedviT adamianebis Tanamdebobebze daniSvnis damkvidrebuli praqtikiT. man gamoscada rogorc samxedro warmatebebiT gamowveuli dideba, aseve omis saSinelebani. yovelive aRniSnulis meSveobiT man gaacnobiera napoleonis sruli gavlena Tanamedrove epoqaze da am gavleniT gamowveuli sisusteebi da upiratesobani.

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare is garemoeba, rom stendalis nawarmoebis gmirTa xasiaTebSi aSkarad igrZnoba napoleoniseuli suli, namdvilad ar iwvevs gakvirvebas. miuxedavad misi naklovanebebisa napoleonma dideba moutana safrangeTsa da stendals. napoleonis dacemis Semdeg stendali gaxda mowme sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebuli nostalgiisa napoleonis mimarT. igi gaxda mowme wminda elenes kunZulad wodebul ukacriel kldeze napoleonis gadasaxlebisa da amiT Tavzardacemuli iyo. napoleonis uaryofa stendalisaTvis niSnavda misi sakuTari cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebis uaryofas. uaryofis es SegrZneba, sakmaod nacnobi napoleonis yvela TayvanismcemlisaTvis, gaaZliera rogorc misi grZnoba napoleonis mimarT aseve misi swrafva daecva napoleonisa da misi epoqis mier damkvidrebuli Rirebulebani. mizezebi msgavsi siyvarulisa napoleonis mimarT naTlad aris asaxuli mis nawarmoebis `napoleonis cxovreba~ SesavalSi:`me vwer am nawarmoebs yvela Seuracxyofis pasuxad.~ es Seuracxyofa mdgomareobda yvela im Rirebulebebis uaryofaSi, risTvisac ibrZoda napoleoni. swored am uaryofam daayena kiTxvis winaSe Tavad stendalis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi. stendalis literaturuli memkvidreoba warmoadgens napolionis gamocdilebisa da didebis brwyinvale gamovlinebas.

 

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