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napoleoni egvipteSi.

1798-1799

nika xoferia


napoleonis laSqroba egvipteSi iyo erT-erTi yvelaze egzotikuri laSqroba safrangeTis axal istoriaSi. safrangeTis savaWro burJuazias burbonebis mefobis droidan, kargi urTierToba hqonda levantis qveynebTan (siria, egvipte, palestina), rac xelsayreli iyo safrangeTis vaWrobisa da mrewvelobisaTvis. levanti iTvleboda”brwyinvale portis”anu
osmaleTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi. magram sulTnis gavlena Zalian iyo
Sesustebuli egvipteSi, sadac qveynis faqtiuri gamgeblebi mamluqi begebi iyvnen.


egviptis laSqroba safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministris Sarl moris taleiranis idea iyo, romelic napoleonsac daujda WkuaSi da mTavrobas laSqrobis ganxorcieleba SesTavaza. safrangeTis mTavrobam, direqtoriam, moiwona es idea da napoleons misi ganxorcieleba daavala. napoleonma miiRo "inglisis” armiis" sardloba (armias "inglisis" imitom ewoda rom frangebi dezinformacias avrcelebdnen TiTqos es jari inglisSi salaSqrod emzadeboda). napoleons surda daepyro egvipte da axlo aRmosavleTi da moewyo aq placdarmi indoeTSi  laSqrobis dasawyebad riTac apirebda safrangeTis mowinaaRmdegis, inglisis ekonomikis ganadgurebas. britanelebi indoeTis resursebs moxerxebulad iyenebdnen, maT aq daarses aRmosavleT indoeTis savaWro kompania, romelis saSualebiT inglisi nel-nela mTel indoeTs eufleboda. ingliseli moxeleebi indoeTidan ezidebodnen oqros, saneleblebs da rac mTavaria Cais, da vaWrobidan miRebul mogebas iyenebda safrangeTis sawinaaRmdegod koaliciebis dasafinanseblad.

egviptis laSqroba iseTi gasaidumloebuli iyo rom mis Sesaxeb 
safrangeTis mmarTveli direqtoriis (siesi, barasi, roJe-diuko, goie da muleni), Jozef fuSes (policiis ministri), taleiranisa da napoleonis garda, aravin araferi icoda. napoleonma icoda rom Tu am laSqrobis Sesaxeb inglisis admirali horacio nelsoni Seityobda, is ecdeboda frangTa saeqspedicio armiis flotis CaZirvas, ris Sedegadac frangebi dakargavdnen TavianTi jaris saukeTeso nawils da flotis 13 saxazo gemsa da ramdenime fregats, amiT napoleonis ganzraxvas sabolood moeReboda bolo. 

egviptis laSqrobis monawile jariskacebma da samxedro meTaurebma (amaT garda napoleonma egvipteSi 167 mecnieri waiyvana am uZvelesi qveynis gamosakvlevad,maT Soris iyvnen:monJi,berTole,fiure da a.S). frangebma moamzades 32000-iani armia da flotis saxazo xomaldebSi Casxes.flots
xelmZRvanelobda admirali fransua-pol brue.

napoleonma egviptis laSqrobis win taleirans sTxova daxmareba. taleireni gaqnili da meqrTame adamiani ki iyo magram amavdroulad igi flobda diplomatiis xelovnebas da iyo saocrad niWieri. napoleonis egvipteSi SeWrisTanave, taleirani stambulSi unda Casuliyo da sulTani daerwmunebina imaSi, rom napoleoni egvipteSi TurqeTisaTvis zianis misayeneblad ki ar Cavida, aramed mxolod imisTvis rom inglisisaTvis dartyma mieyenebina.
amas garda napoleoni gaanadgurebda mamluqebs romlebic Turqebs aRar emorCilebodnen da damoukidebloba surdaT. bonaparts TurqeTisaTvis Tvalis axveva droebiT Wirdeboda, manamde sanam egviptes daipyrobda da iq fexs moikidebda. Semdeg frangebi apirebdnen levantis qveynebis srul
damorCilebas.

laSqrobis dawyebamde napoleonma moaxerxa inglisis flotisgan Tavis arideba. man xma daagdo rom apirebda gibraltaris srutis gavliT inglisSi SeWras. nelsonis flotis nawili gibraltarisaken gaeSura raTa ar
daeSva frangebis Seteva. meore nawiliT ki nelsoni tulonis maxloblad idga. 1798 wlis maisSi misi gemebs qariSxalma gadauara da Zalian daaziana, ris gamoc nelsoni iulebuli iyo gibraltarSi dabrunebuliyo. swored am dros napoleoni jarTan erTad mSvidad gaeSura egviptisaken. mis flotSi Sedioda 13 saxazo gemi da ramdenime fregati.

napoleonis epoqis samxedro gemebi xis masaliT igeboda. arsebobda ramdenime saxis gemi:fregati,saxazo gemi da brigi.brigi oranZiani gemi iyo.fregati samanZiani. saxazo gemi yvelaze didi iyo. masac sami anZa da kidev
cxviris damatebiTi afrebi hqonda. samxedro gemebi SeiaraRebulni iyvnen 
sazRvao qvemexebiT.brigs da fregats SedarebiT ufro naklebi zarbazani hqondaT vidre saxazo gemebs.saxazo gemebi qvemexTa ricxvi zogjer 120-mde aRwevda.napoleonis flotis admirali briuensis saflagmano gemis qvemexTa raodenoba 120 iyo. TiToeul gemze ekipaJis garkveuli raodenoba iyo.saxazo gemebis ekipaJi mniSvnelovnad aRemateboda fregatisa da brigis ekipaJebs. napoleonis brZanebiT egviptis laSqrobis TiToeul gemze ganalages xuTasi veterani “italiis” armiis rigebidan. napoleonma gaiTvaliswina rom inglisis swrafi floti moaxerxebda gamokideboda frangTa flots da sazRvao brZola gaemarTa misTvis.amitom napoleonma gaiTvaliswina es da jariskacebi sabrZolo gemebze ganalaga.bonaparti gegmavda rom roca ingliselTa gemebi mis gemebs miuaxlovdebodnen,frangebs abordaJze unda aeyvanaT isini da xelCarTul brZolaSi gaenadgurebinaT.napoleonis brZolaSi gamobrZmedil meomrebs ar gauWirdebodaT ingliseli mezRvaurebis damarcxeba.amitom frangebs ar eSinodaT nelsonis flotis. 

napoleoni gzadagza ikavebda xmelTaSua zRvis patara kunZulebs. frangebma daipyres kunZuli malta da iq samxedro garnizoni datoves. napoleons malta sWirdeboda raTa gaemyarebina safrangeTis pozicia xmelTaSua zRvaSi.es kunZuli axlo iyo italiasTan da afrikasTanac.amas garda napoleonma kunZulze didZali simdidre Caigdo xelSi.frangebi SeCerdnen kunZul kretazec sadac axlac SemorCenilia saxli sadac napoleonma Rame gaaTia.

1798 wlis ivlisSi napoleonma jari aleqsandriaSi, ptolemaiosebis egviptis Zvel dedaqalaqTan gadasxa. frangebma Seityves rom inglisis flots dauswria maTi flotisaTvis:48 saaTiT adre misul egvipteSi ,ingliselebs unaxavT rom egvipteSi arcerTi frangi ar iyo amitom nelsonma ivarauda rom napoleoni stambulis mimarTulebiT wavida. ingliselebi stambulisaken daiZrnen, napoleonma ki jari mSvidad gadasxa egvipteSi da aiRo aleqsandria. napoleoni Tavis moxsenebaSi egviptis laSqrobaze wers:~19 mesidors armia aleqsandriidan gavida. 20-Si ukve damanhurTan viyaviT. udabnoze gadasvlis dros uCveulo papanaqebam da uwylobam gagvawama. nilosis sanapiroze-rahmaniesTan, sadac 22 mesidors gavediT, brZola gadavixadeT.~


napoleonis am sityvebidan Cans rom frangTa jari egvipteSi Zalzed ewameboda sicxeSi da uwylobaSi. napoleonis jari rahmaniesTan mamluqebs SeebrZola da ukuaqcia isini. mamluqebma danakargi ganicades da ukan daixies. murad-bei patara flotiliisa da zarbaznebis imediT frangebs sofel SebrizTan moeloda. napoleoni kareebad dawyobili jariT miuaxlovda mamluqebs. mas mxolod 200 mxedari hyavda. mamluqebi saukeTesod iyvnen SeiaraRebulebi dambaCebiT, karabinebiT da aRmosavluri xmlebiT. mamluqTa flots daupirispirda frangTa flotilia peres sardlobiT. frangebma mamacurad ibrZoles da mtris floti xelT igdes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mamluqebma kavaleriiT Seuties ~kareebad~ dawyobil frangebs, romlebac  mamluqebs miaxloebis saSualeba ar misces. mravali mamluqi daiWra da daixoca, danarCeni ki ukan daixia. am brZolaSi mamluqebma samasamde kaci dakarges. frangebma swrafad miaRwies sofel inbabas sadac mamluqi begebi iyvnen gamagrebuli TavianTi jariT. gizis piramidebTan moxda didi brZola napoleonsa da murad-beis Soris. frangebi isev kareebad iyvnen ganlagebuli rogorc SebrizTan brZolaSi. mamluqebma Seuties magram frangTa tyviebiT mravali maTgani moicela da daiWra. isini SeiWrnen im intervalSi romelic or frangul qveganayofs erTmaneTisgan yofda. frangebma grigaliseburi cecxliT moigeries isini. frangebma generali bues meTaurobiT mamluqTa sangrebs Seuties. meore frangulma SenaerTma general violes meTaurobiT sangrebsa da maTze moieriSe bues razms Soris teritoria daikava riTac sami mniSvnelovani amocana gadaWra:1.xeli SeuSala mamluqTa razmebs sangrebis damcvelTaTvis miSvelebaSi. 2.gareT Semosasvleli gza gadauketa mamluqebs,romlebic simagres icavdnen. 3.Tu saWiro iqneboda marcxnidan TviTon miitanda ieriSs mtris sangrebze.general bues Semtevi qveganayofis ramdenime kolona,romelTac generali baSponi sardlobda,mtris sangrebs uSiSrad daacxra Tavs da daamarcxa mamluqebis mesangreebi.mamluqTa kavaleria isev Setevaze gadavida magram napoleonis qveiTebma Zlieri cecxliT ukan daaxevines maT.uamravi maluqi daeca brZolis velze.frangebma xelT igdes 50 zarbazani da 400 saomari masaliT datvirTuli aqlemi.oriaTasze meti mamluqi daiRupa.maT Soris maTi ramdenime begi.TviTon murad-bei daiWra da darCenili jariT ukan daixia.imave Rames kairos evakuacia moxda.xalxma TavianT saZulvel mamluqTa saxlebs cecxli moukides.
brZolaSi mamluqebma didi simamace gamoiCines.isini TavianT qonebas icavdnen.mamluqebi oqro-vercxlSi iyvnen Caflulni.yovel moklul mamluqs aRmoaCnda didZali simdidre. 


mamluqebis erT-erTi meTauri iyo qarTveli mamluqi ibreim-bei (SinjikaSvili) romelic Seix al baladis tituls atarebda.
saerTod mamluqTa maRali fenis garkveul nawils qarTvelebi Seadgendnen. Turqebi itacebdnen qarTvel, albanel, somex da Turq biWebs da Semdeg egvipteSi maT meomrebad zrdidnen, romelsac mamluqi ewodeboda (sityva
“mamluqi”niSnavs TeTr monas). napoleoni mamluqebTan gamarjvebis Semdeg kairoSi Sevida.frangebma uZvelesi qveynis dapyroba moaxerxes.napoleonis mierwamoyvanili mecnierebi egviptis siZveleebs ikvlevdnen.maT laSqrobis dasasrulisTvis aRmoaCines rozetas qva,romlis saSvalebiTac 1822 wels Jan fransua Sampolionma egvipturi damwerloba gaSifra. frangebma aRmoaCines faraon ramzes II-is sarkofagi.,romelzedac aseTi ambavi gavrcelda: napoleonma moiTxova rom masTan mietanaT sarkofagi romelSic ramzes II didis mumia esvena.rodesac mas Jiunom hkiTxa namdvilad surda Tu ara mumiis naxva,napoleonma upasuxa:me msurs vixilo adamiani romelsac misi mtrebic ki RmerTad miiCnevdnen,didi faraoni romelic saberZneTis arsebobis dasawyisamde xuTasi wliT adre cxovrobda da romis daarsebamde aTasi wliT adre”.mcire xnis siCumis Semdeg napoleonma Tqva:”egviptelebi yvelaze diadi xalxia visac ki am miwaze odesme ucxovria,maT dagvitoves udidesi istoria qveynisa romelsac marTavdnen diadi faraonebi,egviptelebma am piramidebiT da 
taZrebiT,am mumiebiT daamtkices TavianTi ukvdaveba da sikvdili daamarcxes. napoleoni sulTnis sasaxlis saidumlo oTaxTan iyo,romlidanac frangebma sarkofagi amoitanes da gaxsnes.mumia cocxaliviT gamoiyureboda.”RmerTo Cemo meCveneba rom is sunTqavs”aRmoxda bonaparts(aqamde misgan sityva RmerTi ar gaugoniaT).

napoleonma doinji Semoiyara da asekarga xani idga da uyurebda egviptis udidesi faraonis mumias. sanam napoleoni egvipteSi ibrZoda,horacio nelsoni,inglisis flotiT mobrunda TurqeTidan sadac napoleonis egvipteSi dagvianebis gamo moxvda.nelsoni Tavs daesxa frangTa flots el abukiris yureSi da sastiki brZola gaumarTa.frangTa admiralma Secdomebi dauSva,brZolisTvis uxeirod moemzada da nelsonis svlebi ver gaiTvaliswina. nelsonma ki moxerexebuli manevriT daamarcxa igi.Tumca ingliselTa gemebic sakmaod daziandnen.napoleons floti aRar hyavda magram jaris winaSe gamosvlisas man jariskacebs ise auwya es ambavi TiTqos mniSvnelovani araferi momxdariyos,igi ambobda rom frangebs ukan dasaxevi gza aRar hqondaT da brZola unda gaegrZelebinaT.napoleoni egviptis axal ganviTarebul qveyanaze
ocnebobda da amis ganxorcieleba surda.

taleirani stambulSi ar Cavida. TurqeTi swrafad amoqmedda.mas ingliselebma ubiZges omis dasawyebad.Turqebma ori 50000-iani armia Sekribes da frangebis winaaRmdeg daZres.osmalebs inglisis floti yvelanairad exmareboda.napoleons sam frontze omi uwevda: erT mxares mamluqebis axali Semoteva iyo mosalodneli,meore mxares pirveli Turquli armiisa romelic Razisa da sinas naxevarkunZulis gavliT moemarTeboda,mesame mxares ki meore Turquli armiis,romelic  egviptis CrdiloeTSi apirebda moqmedebas.napoleonma garnizoni datova ramdenime qalaqSi da mniSvnelovan punqtSi.napoleons Tavisi generali deze,gagzavnili hyavda zemo egviptis dasapyrobad 10000jariskaciT. .napoleons xelT hyavda mxolod 13000 kaci.miuxedavad amisa igi siriisaken daiZra.napoleonTan iyvnen rCeuli frangi generlebi: kleberi,lani,miurati da Jiuno. frangebma aiRes Raza da iafa.iafasTan frangebma danebebuli Turquli garnizoni amowyvites radgan napoleons mcire raodenobis sursaTi hqonda da 2000 tyve mis isedac gaRaribebul marags sul gaanadgurebda.saWmeli da sasmeli frangebs Zlivs hyofnidaT,amitom mimarTa sardalma aseT sisastikes. napoleonma 
alya Semoartya Zlieri galavniT dacul qalaq akras.am qalaqs icavda TurqTa garnizoni romelic uxvad iyo momaragebuli tyvia-wamliT da iaraRiT( inglisis floti mudmivad amaragebda Turqebs).inglisis flots akrasTan,meTaurobda sidnei smiti. frangebs saalyo artileria ar hqondaT(napoleonma egviptidan zRviT gamoagzavnina saalyo artileria patara gemebiT magram isini ingliselebma Caigdes xelSi. amitom akris sqeli galavnis aReba saSinlad gaWirda.Tumca miuxedavad ingliselTa daxmarebisa,Turqebic Zalian cud dReSi iyvnen.frangebs gaafTrebuli ieriSebi mihqondaT akraze.brZolis dros daiRupa napoleonis erT-erTi usayvarlesi generali,kafareli. Turqebma akris garnizonis dasaxmareblad 30000-iani armia daZres.napoleonma jaris nawili saalyod datova da Turqebis winaaRmdeg generali kleberi gaagzavna.brZola nazareTTan moxda.klebers 3000-iani armia hyavda da Turqebis Setevebs mainc mamacurad igeriebda.napoleoni xvdeboda rom esoden mcire jariT kleberi ver gaimarjvebda da iZulebuli gaxda mixmareboda mas.bonapartis Seteva moulodneli aRmoCnda TurqebisaTvis da aman areuloba gamoiwvia maT rigebSi.napoleonma swrafi SeteviT gafanta isini.klebermac jari Tavdacvidan Setevaze gadaiyvana da bonapartTan erTad daamarcxa Turqebis jari. frangebs am brZolaSi mxolod 6000 jariskaci hyavdaT 30000-is winaaRmdeg.napoleonma akris aReba ver moaxerxa da 1799 wlis 20 maiss ukan daixia.siriis laSqrobisas frangebs SeeyaraT Savi Wiris 
epidemia,Tumca didi msxverpli ar yofila. miuxedavad amisa jariskacebi SeSinebulebi iyvnen aseTi saSineli daavadebisagan. napoleonma maT gasamxneveblad iafaSi yofnisas erTi daavadebuli xelSi aiyvana da saavadmyofoSi gadaiyvana. rodesac napoleoni egvipteSi dabrunda
man naxa rom iq ajanyeba iyo dawyebuli. kairos ajanyeba frangebma sastikad CaaxSes. musulmanebi male damSviddnen da napoleonma axla nilosis deltasTan, abukirTan ingliselTa flotis mier gadmosxmul osmalur armias mixeda.man sastikad gaanadgura Turqebi...napoleonis generalma miuratma am brZolis dros daamarcxa mamluqTa jari romelic Turqebis dasaxmareblad movida.(miurati kavaleriis saukeTeso meTauri iyo,romelic imperiis
periodSi marSali gaxda).

egviptis laSqrobisas miuratis garda,Tavi gamoiCines dezem,kleberma
da lanma. napoleoni cdilobda egviptelebis gadmobirebas.musulmanebi 
napoleons sulTan-qebirs uwodebdnen( cecxlovan sulTans,cecxlis 
mbrZanebels,imis gamo rom napoleonis jari marjved xmarobda cecxlsasrol iaraRs da zarbaznebs. napoleonma Seityo,rom safrangeTi Cabmuliyo antifrangul koaliciasTan omSi da ebrZoda ruseTs,avstrias,neapols da ingliss.frangebs am omSi ar gaumarTlaT.Tan maTi ramdenime saukeTeso generali da armiis nawili egvipteSi iyo.koaliciam safrangeTs waarTva napoleonis mier adre dapyrobili italia.frangebi damarcxdnen novis brZolaSi sadac daiRupa maTi generali Juberi.. napoleonma safrangeTSi dabruneba gadawyvita.man sardloba general klebers dautova(kleberma ar icoda rom napoleoni wavida da Zalauneburad meTauroba Caibara) da TviTon mcire razmiT da danarCeni generlebiT Cumad egvipte datova da safrangeTSi dabrunda ori patara saTevzao gemiT.napoleonis laSqroba msoflios uZveles qveyanaSi dasrulda.


generali kleberi egviptes Wkvianurad marTavda..mamacma generalma 1800 wlis 20 marts heliopolisTan daamarcxa Turqebis jari iusuf faSas meTaurobiT, romelic egvipteSi SeiWra. kleberma mravali egvipteli gadmoibira magram sabolood musulmani fanatikosis xanjliT daiRupa.kleberi generalma menum Secvala romelic gamusulmanda da abdula-menu daerqva.menu mamaci magram mmarTvelobis niWs moklebuli iyo.male mas Turqebma da ingliselebma Seuties. Seviwroebulma menum kapitulacia gamoacxada mtrisaTvis misTvis misaReb da sapatio pirobebis gamotyuebis Semdeg. 

sabolood napoleonis egvipturi laSqroba marcxiT dasrulda magram mecnierebisaTvis es nayofieri wlebi iyo,radgan maT gamoikvlies egviptis siZveleebi.napoleonis egvipturi laSqroba gaxda safuZveli momavali didi mecnierebis,egviptologiis CamoyalibebisaTvis. egviptis laSqroba iyo erTi samyaros(dasavleTis)dapirispireba meore samyarosTan (aRmosavleTTan). napoleonis laSqrobebs Soris egviptis laSqroba yvelaze egzotikuri da araCveulebrivia.Tumca am omma bonaparti daarwmuna rom Tavisi ocnebis,(daepyro aRmosavleTi da Seetana iq dasavluri kultura)aRsruleba SeuZlebeli iyo.


gamoyenebuli literatura.

1.dimitri ciskariSvili, napoleoni. gamomcemloba”saqarTvelo”.Tbilisi 1994.
2.evgeni tarle, napoleoni gamomcemloba”bedia”.Tbilisi 1996.
3.E
Gregory Fremont-Barnes, ed. Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Santa Barbara Ca : ABC-CLIo, 2006.
4. d.janeliZe da b.silagaZe. qarTveli mamluqebi egviptesa da eraySi. sabWoTa saqarTvelo”Tbilisi, 1967



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