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andre masena, eslingis Tavadi,
revoluciisa da napoleonis periodSi




donald xorvardi,
napoleonisa da safrangeTis revoluciis kvlevis
instituti (aSS)

saqarTvelos napoleonis sazogadoebis Targnmani



1789 wlis revoluciis Semdgomi periodis ganmavlobaSi SesaniSnavi axalgazrda oficrebis saocrad didi raodenoba dawinaurda safrangeTis armiaSi. zogierTi maTgani iyo Camoyalibebuli strategi, taqtikosi, administratori, inJineri da artileristi, maSin rodesac sxvebi brwyinvale samxedro meTaurebi iyvnen. maT Soris ki upirveles yovlisa unda davasaxeloT andre masena, romelmac napoleonis erT-erTi yvelaze niWieri da saimedo mxedarTmTavris saxeli moipova.


unda aRiniSnos, rom TviTon masena sakuTar pirovnebas meored afasebda da pirvelobas mxolod napoleons uTmobda. marTlac cota Tu Seedreba masenas gmirobebs brZolis velze da mis karieras. misi mowinaaRmdegeni kargad arian cnobilni:generalisimusi aleqsandre suvorovi, romelsac marTebulad miiCneven Tanamedrove rusuli armiis erT-erT damaarsebladl; erchercogi karl von habsburgi, romelic araerTxel daupirispirda napoleons brZolis velze da ser artur velesli, velingtonis hercogi, romelmac mTavari roli iTamaSa napoleonis saboloo damarcxebaSi vaterloosTan.
bunebrivia napoleonTan brZolisas, yoveli maTgani upirispirdeboda masenas, magram maT Soris mxolod velingtoni Tu iamayebs masze damajerebeli gamarjvebis mopovebiT. masenas iSviaTi sabrZolo niWis gamo, evropaSi mtrebic da keTilis mosurneebic erTnairad scemdnen pativs mis saxels. dRes safrangeTSi bulvarebi, quCebi, parkebi da skverebi misi titulebisa da gamarjvebebis saxels atareben. masenas didebuli biusti dRac amSvenebs velingtonis cixesimagris did hols stretfild seiSi. da es biusti iq SemTxveviTobis gamo namdvilad ar moxvedrila.


napoleonis bevrma generalma ganaTleba SesaniSnav frangul da evropis sxva akademiebSi miiRo. masena ki erT-erTi imaTgani iyo, vinc didebas formaluri ganaTlebis gareSe miaRwia. es imas sulac ar niSnavs, rom igi cudad flobda sabrZolo xelovnebas an aklda administraciuli niWi. manam sanam keTilSobili aristokratebi ganaTlebas iRebdnen da aRwevdnen dawinaurebas rogorc privilegirebuli fena, dabali warmoSobis masenam iseT warmatebas miaRwia, rom TviT napoleoni mas moixseniebda rogorc - `Cemi samxedro imperiis udidesi saxeli~.


100 aTasobiT frangi jariskacisagan igi gamoirCeoda TviTganaTlebiT, niWierebiT, simamaciT, SeupovrobiT da pasuxismgeblobis araCveulebrivi grZnobiT.


dawinaurda ra rigiTidan generlamde, man TiToeul saxelmZRvanelo doneze sabrZolo operaciebSi Cawvdomis unikaluri unari moipova. masena sxvadasxva Tanamdebobaze 35 wlis ganmavlobaSi xelmZRvanelobda frangul jars. am drois ganmavlobaSi man gaiumjobesa saomari saqmis codna da xelmZRvanelobis, marTvis unari. didi gamocdilebis da araCveulebrivi niWis wyalobiT, masena brwyinavle mxedarTmTavris saxeliT Sevida farngul istoriaSi.


masena daibada 1758 wels italiaSi nicis sagrafoSi da siRaribeSi aRizarda. 1764 wels, mamis sikvdilis Semdeg, man veRar SeZlo ganaTlebis gagrZeleba. rodesac dedamisi xelmeored daqorwinda, patara masena sacxovreblad naTesavebTan gaagzavnes. Tavdapirvelad is levansSi, bebiasTan, qalbaton lekres blanTan (Lecrece Blanc) darCa. misi sikvdilis Semdeg ki nicaSi biZasTan - agostinosTan gadavida sacxovreblad, romelmac sapnis gamkeTeblad daawyebina muSaoba. patara abdre Tavis biZaSvilebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki masze oTxi wliT ufros fransuasTan erTad, sportiT dainteresda. mozardi masena quCis biWebs SeuerTda da male Jakis quCis teritoriaze Seqmna jgufi da burgardis bulvarze mezobeli biJebis jgufebTan awarmoebda brZolebs, romlebic joxebiTa da qvebiT mimdinareobda. Ram-RamobiT is quCebSi daZrwoda da Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom masena ~saSineli bavSvi~ iyo. umeTvalyureod mitovebuli masena hiperaqtiuri da meamoxe pirovgnebad yalibdeboda rodesac misi biZaSvilebi tulonSi gaemgzavrnen, man gadawyvita gahqceoda im fizikur tanjvas, romelsac samuSao (sapnis keTeba) ayenebda da zRvaze gaipara.
13 wlis asakisaTvis igi iungad msaxurobda savaWro gemze, romelsac misi naTesavi xelmZRvanelobda. oTxi wlis manZilze Seupovari Sromisa da safrangeTis gvianaSi ori mogzaurobis Semdeg, is bedis saZieblad kvlav nicaSi dabrunda. 1794 wels biZis marsel masenas TxovniT, romelic italiis samefo polkSi adiutantad msaxurobda, masena polkSi rigiTad Cairicxa, raTa safrangeTis mefisaTvis emsaxura.


formaluri ganaTlebis, wvrTnis da momavlis perspeqtivebis gareSe, masena TavSesafars biZasTan eZebda, romelmac gadawyvita ganaTleba mieca Tavisi uweso naTesavisaTvis. jariskacis Cveulebriv movaleobebTan erTad, marseli mas aswavlida wera-kiTxvas frangul enaze. ori wlis samsaxuris Semdeg igi daawinaures kapralobamde. biZamisi ki umcros leitenantad daawinaures da sxva tanamdebobaze gadaiyvanes.


momdevno 12 wlis ganmavlobaSi masenam gaagrZela axali Cvevebis daufleba da dainiSna jer serJantis, Semdeg ki adiutantis Tanamdebobaze. rogorc efeqturi fizikuri wvrTnis instruqtori, man male polkis serJantis Tanamdeboba daikava. Tavis polkTan erTad centralur da samxreT safrangeTSi samsaxuris Semdeg nawili, sadac msaxurobda masena, zRvispira alpebSiAganlagda, ramac andres misca saSualeba gacnoboda am regionis topografias. igi verc ki warmoidgenda, rom momavalSi swored aq ganxorcieldeboda misi sabrZolo operaciebi.


1787 wels masenas polki reformirebul iqna provansis samefo mxedrebis SenaerTad (
Royal Chasseurs of Provence) da gaigzavna antipSi, sadac is revoluciis afeTqebamde darCa.
aq yofnisas masenam daxvewa movaleobisa da pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, rogorc polkis oficerma. aseve gamocdilebis momcemi iyo misi megobroba polkis ramdenime gadamdgar oficerTan. omis ministris seguris 1781 wlis 22 maisis brZanebulebiT aikrZala oficris Cinamde dabali warmoSobis adamianebis dawinaureba. megobrebi masenas araoficialurad komisrad daniSvnas dahpirdnen, magram mas semdeg rac ministris brZanebiT dawinaurebis oficialuri SesaZlebloba amoiwura, masenam dauyonebliv datova armia.
masenas es dagawyvetileba qirurgis qaliSvilTan, mari-rozali lamarTan qorwinebam ganamtkica. igi Tavisi finansuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas varaudobda, magram sul male cxovrebis bedukuRmarTobis Sedegad masena bostneulis maRaziaSi gamyidvelad daiwyo musaoba.


TiTqos da bedis ironia iyoso, da masenas armiidan gadadgomis 8 Tvis Semdeg, erovnulma asambleam Secvala manamde moqmedi mTavrobis mier gamocemuli brZaneba oficerTa Sesaxeb da armiaSi rangis miReba SesaZlebeli gaxda gvarisa da Camomavlobisagan damokideblad.
situacia ki ufro da ufro rTuldeboda, evropis TiTqmis yvela saxelmwifo mtrulad ganewyo safrangeTis revoluciis mimarT. qveyana samxedro banaks daemsgavsa. sxva qalaqebis msgavsad, antibis konsulma samoqalaqo razmebis Sedgena daiwyo. masenas maSinve SesTavazes kapitan-instruqtoris Tanamdeboba, razedac daTanxmda. xuT TveSi man iaraRis xmarebasa da xelCarTul brZolaSi sakmaod gawvrTnili razmi Camoyaliba.


1791 wlis agvistoSi mTavrobam TavdacviT batalionebs sazRvrebis dacva ubrZana. omis departamentis mier Seqmnil 12 batalionSi samoqalaqo razmi me-2 batalions Seadgenda. masena mesame xarisxis oficrad - maior-adiutantad airCies. oTx TveSi, masenas patriotizmis, talantisa da gamocdilebis warmoCinebis Semdeg, jariskacebma igi batalionis leitent-polkovnikad airCies, xolo 6 Tvis Semdeg igi ukve batalions meTaurobda.


1792 wlis aprilSi safrangeTs, avstriasa da piemont-sardinias Soris omi daiwyo. masenas batalions sardinias sazRvarTan TavdacviTi poziciebi ekava. mtris poziciebze mravali dazverviTi operaciis Sesrulebis dros, masenam meTaurisaTvis aucilebeli da mniSvnelovani Tvisebebi SeiZina. amavdroulad, brZolisaTvis mzadebis win, man gaaorkeca Tavisi batalionis wvrTna da imeds itovebda, rom misi danayofi regularul armias SeuerTdeboda. erT TveSi, 1792 wlis oqtomberSi nicis dakavebis Semdeg, masenas nawili moxalisaTa sam sxva batalionTan erTad axlad Seqmnil italiis armias SeuerTda. 1793 wlis pirvel TveebSi italiis armiis xelmZRvaneloba naklebad efeqturi aRmoCnda. 8 agvistos mdgomareoba masenas sasargeblod Seicvala - armias masenas didi xnis megobari, pier dumerbioni Caudga saTaveSi. 11 dRis Semdeg masena ukve brigadas xelmZRvanelobs. am daniSvnas aRmasrulebeli sabWos Semdegi gancxadeba mohyva: `viTvaliswinebT ra gamocdilebas, karg qcevas, mondomebas, Seupovrobas da qveynis winaSe mis erTgulebas, moqalaqe masena daniSnul iqnas brigadis generlis Tanamdebobaze.~


male, brZanebis Tanaxmad, masenam Tavisi brigada TovliT dafarul, maRalmTian fugases (Fougasse) banakSi ganalaga. am saSiS poziciaze man Seiswavla Tu rogor unda Segueboda mkacr bunebasa da kldovani mTebs, kargad momaragebuli mtris armiis Semotevebs, maSin rodesac misi nawilebi resursebisa da TavSesafris mwvave naklebobas ganicdidnen. masenam gaaZliera Tavisi sagusagoebi da artileria, ris Sedegad SeZlo mtris ramdenime seriozuli Setevis mogerieba. am izolirebul adgilas, masenam gamoimuSava arealis topografiis wynari da swrafi Sefasebis, agreTve mtris damarcxebisaTvis aucilebeli sapasuxo zomebis swrafi gansazRvris unari. man iswavla mowinaaRmdegis siZlierisa da sisusteebis amocnoba da Tu ramdenad SeeZlo garemo pirobebs brZolis dros gavlenis moxdena. SemdegSi misi es SesaZlebloba masenas erT-erT umTavres siZlered iqceva.


1793 wlis noemberSi, utelTan (Utelle) masenas daevala saTaveSi Casdgomoda italiis armiis dasustebul marcxena frTas. mowinaaRmdegis ganuwyveteli Tavdasxmebis miuzedavad, masenam SeZlo ginestetis cixesimagresa da brekTan gamarTul gadamwyvet brZolebSi gamarjvebis mopoveba. dekemberSi, rodesac uxvma Tovlianobam alpebSi gamarTuli samxedro moqmedebebi SeuZlebeli gaxada, dumerbionis brZanebiT masena tulonis moalye Zalebs SeuerTda. miuxedavad imisa, rom alyis dasaxmareblad sxva generali ukve gamogzavnili iyo, masenas erT-erTi razmis xelmZRvaneloba SesTavazes. igi iyo pirveli, vinc SeiWra l’artiguesis fortSi. sen-katerinas fortis aRebamde, man moaxerxa xelSi Caegdo 6 qvemexi da am mcire artileriT tulinis navsadguridan gasuli britanuli gemebis dabombva daiwyo. sruliad SemTxveviT masenam gaimeora kapitan napoleon bonapartes strategia, romelic am droisTvis navsadguris meore mxares egileTis batareas utevda.


20 dekembers konvenctis warmomadgenlebma acnobes parizs masenas mier gamoCenili `mamacoba, Seupovroba, sazrianoba da patriotizmi~, ris Semdeg andre masena daawinaures da diviziis generlad daniSnes. mogvianebiT, qalaqis aRebaSi misi didi damsaxurebis gamo, masenas tulonis fortebis meTaurad dasaxelda.
qalaqis aRebis Semdeg respublikelebis mxridan nabrZanebi iyo roialistebis winaaRmdeg represiuli zomebis miReba. amasTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom masenas piradi Carevis Semdeg Seiwyales 2000-mde qali da bavSvi, romelTac generalma sen katerinas fortSi miuCina TavSesafari.


1794 wlis 5 ianvars masena gaigzavna nicaSi, sadac mcire xanSi misi niWi ukeTes gamovlinebas hpovebs.


aTi dRis Semdeg, masena italiis armiasSi gaemgzavra. gzazed man antibSi Tavisi ojaxi moinaxula da armiamde mxolod gvian TebervalSi miaRwia. aprilis dasawyisSi 24 wlis bonapartes gegmis mixedviT, armiam xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiroebis gaswvriv da sardiniasaken mimaval samTo bilikebze Setevebi daiwyo. es iyo pirveli im mravali erToblivi operaciebidan, sadac es ori pirovneba iTanamSromlebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom italiis armias saTaveSi dumerbioni edga, operaciebs ZiriTadad es ori oficeri -–erTi infanteriis, xolo meore artileriis brigadis generali axorcielebda.
9 aprils sanapiro zolis gaswvriv win svlis dros, masenam oneglia daikava. erTi kviris Semdeg, sanam bonaparte sam brigadasTan erTad xmelTaSua zRvis napirebze savonas mimarTulebiT moZraobda, masenam CrdiloeTiT, mTebisaken gadainacvla. taranos dablobze misaRwevad misma nawilebma 3000 futi mdebare simaRleze ureltexili nava gadalaxes. laSqrobisas daZleul iqna mowinaaRmdegis yvela pozicia, mrisxane feilis redutis (Feil redoubt) CaTvliT.


masenam gaagrZela winsvala da 29 aprils, rodesac mas generali fransua makquardi SeuerTda, masena saorgiosaken gaemarTa. 9 dRis Semdeg maT 6200 futis simaRleze ganlagebuli tendes biliki daikaves, romelic sardiniis dablobs gadahyurebda. am operaciiT frangebma zRvispira alpebidan savonaSi gadasasvlel yvela gzas daeuflnen.


zafxulis ganmavlobaSi operaciebi Seferxda, magram 14 seqtembers, napoleonis rCeviT, masenam ganaaxla SeteviTi RonisZiebebi. Sedegad bormidas dablobidan win waweulma frangTa Zalebma daikaves dego da ekiui, magram SenaerTebSi arsebulma mZime mdgomareobam aiZula isini saswrafod daxeuliyvnen ukana. 21 seqtembers masena Sevida savonaSi, magram amindis gauaresebis gamo Semdgomi winsvla SeuZlebeli gaxda. naadrevi zamTari metad mkacri gamodga masenas razmebisaTvis, romlebic sazamTro aRWurvilobis gareSe iyvnen dabanakebuli. sakvebisa da saWiro medikamentebis SesaZenad fuladi Tanxebi ar iyo sakmarisi, amitom mravali jariskaci daavadda, gavrcelda epidemiebi. masena iziarebda Tavisi xelqveiTebis gaWirvebas, ris gamoc Tavadac sakmaod seriozulad gaxda avad. mcire xanSi, janmrTelobis gauaresebam aiZula generali antibSi dabrunebuliyo.


1795 wlis aprilSi jer kidev avad myofi masena kvlav SeuerTda italiis armias. misi dabrunebis periodSi armias generali kristof kelermani edga saTaveSi. am xnis ganmavlobaSi, ZiriTadi resursebis mwvave naklebobiT metad dasustebulma frangTa armiam veRar gauZlo avstriis jaris Semotevas da 1794 wels mopovebuli TiTqmis yvela pozicia daTmo. 19 seqtembers, generali bartolomeo Sereris daniSvnis win, romelsac kelermani unda Seecvala, avstrielebma masiuri Seteva ganaxorcieles masenas jaris poziciebze roka-kurairasa da `patara gibraltarTan~. mwvave brZolis Semdeg masenas razmebma ukuaqcies avstrielTa armia.
Sireris daniSvnidan mcire xnis Semdeg, noembris civ amindSi frangebi avstrielTaTvis moulodnelad Setevaze gadavidnen. Setevis ZiriTad Zalas, romelic or diviziasa da rezervs warmoadgenda, masena meTaurobda, xolo armiis danarCen qvedanayofebs flangebis gamagreba evalebodaT. Seteva 21 seqtembris RamiT daiwyo.


masenas erTma diviziam daamarcxa mtris razmebi da daikava monte lingo, xolo moCvenebiTad ukan daxeulma sxva danayofebma am droisTvis monte gvardolaSi SeiWrnen. melongos bilikis gavliT masena zRvisaken gaemarTa da daba loano daipyro. masenam brwyinvale gauwia koordinacia oJerosa da serurieris flangebis diviziebsac. Tavis gadaadgilebis paralelurad, man infanteriis oTxi batalioni ganaTavsa san jiakomosTan, romelTac mtrisaTvis ukan dasaxevi gza unda moeWraT. loanos dakavebiT dagvirgvinebul am SesaniSnavad organizebul operaciaSi, pirvelad warmoCinda masenas rogorc savele meTaurisa da didi saomari niWis mqone adamianis sruli SesaZleblobebi. avstrielebma am brZolaSi 1500 jariskaci da 92 qvemexi dakarges, 4000 tyved Cavarda; maSin, rodesac masenas danakargs mxolod 1200 kaci Seadgenda.


mTavrobisadmi Tavis werilSi Sireri aRniSnavda:`generalma masenam es metad rTuli operacia daxvewilad da kompetenturad Caatara, rac mas sazogadoebriv aRiarebas aniWebs~
1796 wlis TebervalSi, Sireris gadadgomis Semdeg, armiis drobiTi meTauroba masenas daekisra. igi imedovnebda, rom es droebiTi Tanamdeboba mudmiv xasiaTs SeiZenda. martSi direqtoriis gadawyvetilebiT italiis armias saTaveSi napoleon bonaparte Caudga.


masenam mtkivneulad ganicada es movlena, magram sul male misi imedgacrueba kardinalurad Seicvala. swored napoleonis armiis mTavarsardlad daniSvna iqceva mis samxedro karieraSi gardatexis momentad. Semdegi weliwadi masenas moutans ufro did aRiarebas, vidre man mTeli Tavisi karieris manZilze moipova. kampaniis ganmavlobaSi is yvelaze kargad gaicnobs napoleon bonapartes `brZolis sistemas~.


pirvelma italiurma kampaniam bonapartes varskvlavis elviseburi aRzevebasTan erTad `cis TaRze~ masenas saxelic amoabrwyina.
cocxali Zalis da ZiriTadi resursebis naklebobis miuxedavad, napoleonma gadawyvita avstriis armiaze dauyovnebeli Seteva ganexorcielebina. avstrielTa mcire ZalebTan voltrisTan gamarTul brZolis paralelurad, masena Tavisi SenaerTebiT mTebSi iqna gadagzavnili mokavSireTa danarCeni Zalebis dasamarcxeblad. 12 aprils, montenotesTan gaimarTa napoleonis pirveli brZola, romelSic masenam daamarcxa mowinaaRmdege, daatyveva 2000 jariskaci da xelSi Caigdo 5 qvemexi. Semdegi brwinvale gamarjveba man ori dRis Semdeg degosTan gamarTul brZolaSi moipova - 6000 tyve da 30 qvemexi. am droisaTvis Tavad bonaparte dasavleTidan aviwroebda sardiniis samxedro SenaerTebs. masenam Tavisi Zalebi ukan Semoabruna da napoleonTan erTad, 21 aprils sardinielebTan gamarTul mondovis gadamwyvet brZolaSi SeerTebuli ZalebiT gamarjveba moipova. frangTa armiam sardiniis dedaqalaqze, turinze ieriSis misatanad maqsimaluri siswrafiT waiwia win. sardiniis mefe iZulebuli gaxda kapitulacia gamoecxadebina da xeli moawera keraskos xelSekrulebas, romelmac daasrula sardiniasTan omi.
napoleonma parizSi gagzavnil Tavis mimarTvaSi aRniSna am kampaniaSi masenas didi damsaxureba da male generalma miiRo direqtoriis werili romelic xotbas asxamda mis `mxneobas da sabrZolo niWs, romelmac didi wvlili Seitana am brwyinvale gamarjvebaSi.~


valencasTan avstrielTa damarcxebis Semdeg, frangulma armiam piaCencasTan gadakveTa mdinare po da mowinaaRmdege aiZula mdinare addas mimarTulebiT daexia. sofel lodisTan avstrielebma daikaves 170 iardis sigrZis xidi da 14 qvemexiT mdinaris meore napiras ganlagdnen. mdinaris gadalaxvis ramodenime warumatebeli cdis Semdeg, masena, napoleoni, generali aleqsandre bertie da polkovniki Jan lani saTaveSi Caudgnen jaris calkeul nawilebs da sakuTari sicocxlis fasad, razmebs SetevaSi waruZRvnen. meTaurTa simamaciT aRfrTovanebulma frangulma armiam 10 maiss lodisTan damajerebeli gamarjveba moipova. avstriuli Zalebi iZulebuli gaxdnen daetovaT milani, evakuacia moexdinaT lombardis umetesi nawilisaTvis da usafrTxo TavSesafaris saZieblad mantuas cixesimagreSi gamagrebuliyvnen. parizis mTavrobis warmomadgenelma, lazare karno masenas werda:`moqalaqe generalo, cnobilia, rom Tqven edeqiT saTaveSi im mamac jgufs, romelmac artileriiT dacul xidze Sturmi miitana. . . Tqven SeitaneT didi wvlili am RirSesaniSnav brZolaSi gamarjvebisaTvis.~


axali, 50,000-iani avstriuli armia general dagober vumzeris xelmZRvanelobiT qalaq mantuas alyis gasarRvevad da lombardiis dasabruneblad iqna gagzavnili. am droisTvis, masenas divizia gardis tbis aRmosavleTiT iyo ganlagebuli. frangTa SenaerTebma avstrielTa nawilebTan ramdenime cxare orTabrZolis Semdeg ukuagdes mowinaaRmdege. Semdeg masenam ukan daixia da ZiriTadi Zalebis gasanadgureblad, napoleons SeuerTda. agvistos pirvel kviraSi kastiliones midamoebSi gamarTuli dapirispireba kvlav frangTa sasargeblod warimarTa. marTalia bonapartes jarma am SetakebaSi 2600 jariskaci dahkarga, magram xelSi 8300 tyve da 31 qvemexi Caigdo.


seqtemberSi, vumzeri avstrielTa axal armias SemouZRva italiaSi. masenas Zalebma basanosTan gaanadgura mtris ariergardi da 6 dRis ganmavlobaSi aiZula avstrielTa mTavari Zalebi mantuas mimarTulebiT 100 milis manZilze ukan daexia. noemberSi, rodesac general Jozef alvincis xelmZRvanelobiT avstrielTa rigiT mesame armia SemoiWra CrdiloeT italiaSi, masenam ramdenime gabeduli TavdacviTi operacia ganaxorciela, magram mZime danakargebi ganicadaAda kaldileros qedisaken daixia. imisaTvis rom ar daeSva avstrielTa Zalebis gaerTianeba, napoleonma gadawyvita Tavs dasxmoda alvincis SenaerTebs. masenam gadamwyveti roli Seasrula arkoles misadgomebTan gamarTul sam dRian umZimes brZolaSi. man moxerxebulad Seityua mtris razmebi WaobSi da Semdeg sastikad gausworda maT da arkolis xidic daikava.


lombardiidan frangebis gasaZeveblad da qalaq mantuas gasaTavisufleblad 1797 wels gaigzavna avstriis meoTxe armia. avstrielebma erTbaSad sami mimarTulebiT Seuties frangTa Zalebs da maTma mTavarma Zalebma rivolisTan mcire gamarjvebasac miaRwies. Seteva grZeldeboda veronisa da mantuas moimarTulebiTac. rodesac napoleonma Seityo Tu sad iyo mowinaaRmdegis mTavari nawilebi ganlagebuli, man gadawyvita motyuebiTi manevri ganexorcielebina. 13 ianvars Ramis 5 saaTze napoleonis brZanebiT masena veronidan rivolis mimarTulebiT 15 milis manZilze gadaadgilda. man gadakveTa TovliT dafaruli mTebi da misi pirveli razmebi momavali brZolis velze ukve dilis 6 saaTze iyvnen ganlagebuli. bonapartem isini franguli armiis marcxena flangze ganalaga. Setakebis dros masenam Tavisi razmebiT jer armiis centri gaamagra, Semdeg ki moxerxebuli manevriT avstrielTa flangidan Seteva SeaCera. es iyo kidev erTi brwyinvale gamarjveba, romelSic masenam kidev erTxel iTamaSa gadamwyveti roli.
Semdeg dRes, TiTqmis Seusveneblad, masenas SenaerTema 30 mili manZili 24 saaTSi gaiares, raTa avstrielTa meore, mantuas gasaTavisufleblad mimarTuli ZalebisaTvis gza gadaeWra. favoritTan masenam Seutia mowinaaRmdeges da aiZula danebebuliyo.


aRniSnuli, xuTi dRis manZilze, masenam ZiriTadi roli Seasrula napoleonis operaciebSi, romelTa ganxorcielebis Sedegadac avstrielebma 35 000 jariskaci dahkarges. ori kviris Semdeg frangebs mantuas 30 000 garnizonmac kapitulacia gamoacxada. saboloo gamarjvebis mopovebiT da masenas moqmedebiT aRtacebulma napoleonma mas ~gamarjvebis Svili~ - ~l’enfant cheride la victiore~ uwoda.


parizis direqtoriis prezidenti, Jan rebeli igive ganwyobilebiT mimarTavda masenas - `aRmasrulebeli direqtoria gilocavT, moqalaqe generalo, respublikis mtrebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi mopovebul warmatebebs. Tqveni mamaci divizia didebiT Seimosa im sami dRis ganmavlobaSi, romelmac mantua aiZula danebebuliyo. direqtoria Tqven respublikisaTvis yvelaze saWiro da Rirseul generlad gaRiarebT.~

germaniaSi avstrielebis mier miRweuli gamarjvebis Semdeg, habsburgis imperatori, franc II-es jer kidev ar surda Serigeboda lombardiis dakargvas. Sedegad, avstriis yvelaze warmatebuli generali, imperatoris Zma erchercogi karli, axali armiiT gagzavnili iqna veneciis gasaTavisuflebad.


sanam erchercogi Tavisi frontis stabilizirebas moaxdenda, napoleonma Seteva ganaxorciela. am brZolaSi masena TiTqmis damoukideblad moqmedebda. man Tavisi avangardiT mtris razmebs Seutia da maTi winsvla SeaCera. sul male ukan daixia mowinaaRmdegis ZiriTadma Zalebmac. avstrielTa ariergardis yvela operacia warumatebeli gamodga frangTa razmebis winaaRmdeg, romelTa swrafi moqmedeba da SeuCerebeli devna sulis moTqmis saSualebas ar aZlevda karlis nawilebs. travizios gadasasvlelTan `Rrublebze maRla, yinulis velze brZolis Semdeg~, masenam avstriisaken daxeul erchercogis SenaerTebs mniSvnelovani zarali miayena. napoleonma ZiriTadi ZalebiT samxreTisaken gadainacvla. masenas diviziam gadakveTa iulonis alpebi da avstrielTa ramdenime seriozuli TavdacviTi poziciis daZlevis Semdeg iudenbergs miaRwia. sami kviris manZilze, masenam Seupovrobisa da gambedaobis wyalobiT SeZlo Tavis SenaerTebTan erTad gadaelaxa kldovani mTebi da brZoliT daefara 175 milis manZili.

erT-erTi oficeri am faqtis Sesaxeb werda:`SeiZleba iTqvas, rom armiis amdeni xnis warmatebuli msvleloba SesaZlebelia mxolod elitaruli nawilebisaTvis, romelsac elitaruli meTauri udgas saTaveSi. amasTanave, aucilebelia erTmaneTis rwmena da sulieri urTierTdamokidebuleba. masenas nawilebi realurad misi sulis gamoxatulebas warmoadgenen.~ aqve igi aRniSnavda:`SeuZlebelia im zegavlenis, TiTqmis zebunebrivi Zalis sityvebiT gadmocema, romelsac masena axdenda Tavis SenaerTebze Tavis uecari da moulodneli gadawyvetilebiT da im elviseburi siswrafis brZanebebiT, romlebiTac uzrunvelyofda maT Sesrulebas. Cvens Soris ar iyo erTi jariskacic ki, romelic ar amayobda, rom igi masenas divizias ekuTvnoda.~
1797 wels avstriis mxarem samSvidobo molaparakebebi gamarTa da oqtomberSi xeli moewera kappo-formios xelSekrulebas, romelmac daasrula pirveli koaliciis omi.


eWvgareSea, rom masenam da misma diviziam napoleonis warmatebaSi Seasrules ufro didi roli, vidre italiis armiis nebismierma sxva nawilma. napoleonma SeimuSava mTeli kampaniis strategiuli gegma, magram swored masenas miuZRvis didi Rvawli armiis taqtikur warmatebebsa da bonapartes gegmebis ganxorcielebaSi. amave dros, napoleonis meTaurobis qveS masenam kidev ufro daxvewa da srulhyo Tavisi sabrZolo ganaTleba da gamocdileba. man gamoavlina mxedarmTavrisaTvis aucilebeli yvela Tviseba. masenas SesaZloa aklda formaluri ganaTleba, magram igi `generlad iyo dabadebuli~. mas SeeZlo gamoeRviZebina da sworad gamoeyenebina Tavisi jariskacebis SemarTeba da mieRwia araCveuleberivi SedegebisaTvis, romlis karg magaliTs rivolis kampania warmoadgens. `generlisaTvis aucilebeli intuiciis gareSe~, werda portugaliis kampaniaSi masenas adiutanti Jan-Jak pele _ `usargebloa yovelgvari codna, Teoriebi da gamocdileba... zogierTi mxolod diplomiani kurieria, uemocio taqtikosi, anda strategiis mcodne studenti~.


italiaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki rivolis brZolaSi miRweuli warmatebebisaTvis, franguli armiis saboloo gamarjvebis parizisaTvis cnobis pativi napoleonma masenas arguna. 11 wlis Semdeg, bonaparte kvlav gaixsenebs mis pirvel triumfSi masenas did damsaxurebas da mas rivolis Tavadis - ~
Duc de Rivoli”-s tituls uboZebs.


1797 wlis maisSi masena parizSi Cavida. direqtoriis wevrebis mier mis sapativsacemod gamarTul saxelmwifo miRebaze naTqvami iyo:`eWvgareSea, rom istoria ar daiviwyebs respublikel generals, axlaxans ~gamarjvebis Svilad~ (~l’enfant cheri de la victoire~) wodebul mamac masenas~.
masenas Semdegi mniSvnelovani daniSvna moxda 1798 wlis agvistoSi, rodesac igi berties SemadgenlobaSi romis garnizons Caudga saTaveSi. mas nabrZanebi hqonda `gamoeyebebina yvela SesaZlebloba, raTa damxobiliyo papis mTavroba~. masena Tavisi axali TanamdebobiT ar iyo nasiamovnebi, radgan savele meTauris es axali posti SedarebiT administraciul xasiaTs atarebda. romSi masenas mosvlamde franguli armia ukve ramodenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi iyo ganlagebuli am adgilebSi. bevrma oficerma da rigiTma jariskacma qalaqis Zarcvas mihyo xeli. msgavsi saqcielisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli iyo mkacri sasjeli da wodebis CamorTmeva da masenas garnizonis saTaveSi mosvlis momentSi ukmayofilo armia mzad iyo ajanyebisaTvis. jaris uweso qcevasa da armiis mouwesrigebel, znedacemul reJims, romelic SesaZloa sul male amboxebaSi gadazrdiliyo, berties Zma cezari masenasaTvis gadabralebas apirebda.


masenam ver SeZlo aRekveTa jariskacTa da oficerTa uweso qceva da dakavebuli Tanamdebobidan gadadga. am nabijis Semdeg, damsaxurebuli Svebulebis gasatareblad, igi dauyovnebliv antibSi gaemgzavra. vinaidan masena ar iqna miwveuli egviptur eqspediciaSi, 1798 wlis dekembramde igi ar monawileobda aqtiur samxedro moqmedebebSi.


momdevno wels, direqtoriis politikis ganxorcielebis Sedegad, evropis umetesma qveynebma safrangeTis respublikis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli meore koalicia Seqmnes. safrangeTmac Tavis mxriv aRmosavleTis sazRvris gaswvriv oTxi armia ganalaga. masena saTaveSi Caudga 34 000-ian helveciis armias, romelic Sualeduri pozicia ekava italiisa da mainis armiebs Soris. 1799 wlis gazafxulze Swiss Grisons-Tan avstrielTa winaaRmdeg mimarTuli operaciebSi, safrangeTis sxva armiebma mZime marcxi ganicades da masenas SenaerTebs alyaSi moqcevis safrTxe daemuqra. avstrielTa dasaxmareblad, italiasa da SveicariaSi gadmosrolil iqna ruseTis damxmare Zalebic. direqtoriam gadawyvita masenas xelmZRvanelobis qveS gaeerTianebina franguli armiebis danarCeni nawilebic da 90 000 jariskacisagan Semdgari axali franguli armiiT masenas daekisra mTeli aRmosavleTi sazRvris dacva. ciurixTan brZolaSi masenam daamarcxa erchercog karlis nawilebi, magram Semdeg qalaqidan ukan daixia da mimdebare mTebSi daikava poziciebi.
agvistos Sua ricxvebisaTvis, ciurixs generali aleqsandre rimski-korsakovis 28 000-iani rusuli armia miuaxlovda. am momentSi umZimesi taqtikuri Secdoma iqna daSvebuli - qvemo rainis teritoriebis dasakaveblad avstriulma oficialurma xelisuflebam erchercogi karlis nawilebi CrdiloeTiT gadaadgila da general korsakovis ZalebTan SesaerTeblad, mxolod general iohan konrad hoTsis 23,000 avstriuli nawili datoves. am movlenebis paralelurad, italiaSi avstriul Zalebs marSal suvorovis 24,000 armia SeuerTda. moxerxebuli manevrirebiT man italiidan gandevna franguli SenaerTebi da 15 agvistos novisTan gamarTul brZolaSi sastikad daamarcxa isini. demoralizirebulma frangebma genuasaken daixies da italia kvlav avstrielTa kontrolis qveS aRmoCnda. male suvorovma alpebis gadasalaxad da ciurixTan ganlagebul Tavis armiasTan (romelsac rimski-korsakovi sardlobda) SesaerTeblad mzadeba daiwyo. 9 seqtembers marSalma bilinzonis mimarTulebiT asvla daiwyo.


masena iTvaliswinebda mokavSireTa gadaadgilebebs da ciurixis tbis sapirispiro mxareze ganlagebul rusul da avstriul nawilebze moCvenebiT Setevebis axorcielebda. 25 seqtembers dietikonTan, mdiare lamatis gaswvriv, ciurixidan Svidi milis daSorebiT, masenam moulodnelad ZiriTadi ZalebiT Seutia. dabneulma rusulma armiam ukan, ciuruixisaken daixia. frangebis Seteva qalaqis samxreT da dasavleTis mimarTulebiT, ciurixburgze gagrZelda. rusebis ukan daxevas ciurixis intensiuri bombardireba mohyva. Semdegi dRis dadgomasTan erTad korsakovis SenaerTebma mwvave kontrieriSi wamoiwyes, magram mwvave da sisxlismRvreli orTabrZolebis Semdeg, frangebma kvlav ukuaqcies mowinaaRmdege. ruseTis ganadgurebulma armiis nawilebma, romlebmac am SetakebaSi 2000 brZolis velze da 5000 tyved Cavardnili jariskaci dakarges, miatoves resursebis mTeli maragi da artileria, RamiT datoves qalaqi da germaniis mimarTulebiT ukan daixies.
frangTa meore Seteva mdinare linTsTan, Sanisisa da vesens Soris ganlagebul hotsis avstriul nawilebze generalma sultma ganaxorciela. sultis SenaerTebma mters mTebisaken daaxevines. brZola TiTqmis or dRes grZeldeboda da sabolood gamarjveba aqac frangebs darCaT. hotsis armiis nawilebma germaniisaken daixies. am Setakebas avstrielTa mxridan 5,500 daWrili da daRupuli jariskaci emsxverpla.


masenam icoda, rom suvorovi wminda goTardis gadasasvlelisaken moZraobda da Tavisi armia saCqarod samxreTisaken daswia. generali klod-Jak lekorbes diviziam ukve gamoiCina gmiruli saqcieli goTardTan rusuli armiis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da SemdegSi reusTan, eSmakis xidze.
rodesac suvorovma miaRwia reusis midamoebs, ruseTis armiis SenaerTebs gza alTdorfTan gamagrebuli sultis diviziam gadauRoba. rusebma ver SeZles frangTa dacvis xazis garRveva. suvorovma, general korsakovis mZime marcxis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tavisi armia aRmosavleTisaken Semoabruna da pragelis maRali da rTuli gadasasvleliT glarusisaken gaemarTa, sadac mis momlodine axal frangul Zalebs gadaawyda. Setakeba moxda 4 oqtombers, linTsTan, Rrma TovlSi. rusTa SenaerTebma eqvsjer miitanes ieriSi mowinaaRmdegeTa rigebze, magram yoveli maTi cda uSedego gamodga. suvorovs aRar hqonda sxva alternativa, garda imisa, rom mietovebina aRWurviloba da artileria da 5000 jariskacis danakargiT ukan daexia urTulesi peniqseris gadasasvlelisaken (romlis gadalaxva Tanamedrove pirobebSic ki siZneleebTan aris dakavSirebuli).


ruseTisa da avstriul armiebze gamarjveba damagvirgvinebeli miRweva iyo masenas samxedro karieraSi. mowinaaRmdegis siZlieris da SesaZleblobebis da Tavisi saxifaTo mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT man brwyinvale gamarjveba moipova mokavSireTa Zalebze. SveicariaSi warmatebam mTlianad gamoavlina masenas, rogorc mxedarTmTavris taqtikuri da strategiuli SesaZleblobani. es gamarjveba gaxda meore koaliciis daSlis safuZveli, aiZula prusia uari eTqva koaliciaSi gaerTianebaze da rac mTavaria, safrangeTs aaSora Tavdasxmis safrTxe, romelsac SesaZloa revoluciis damxoba mohyoloda.
1799 wlis 27 dekembers, ciurixis brZolidan ori Semdeg, masena italiis armiis mTavarsardlad dainiSna. napoleoni, romelsac ukve pirveli konsulis Tanamdeboba ekava, dapirda armiis resursebiT, fuladi TanxebiTa da cocxali ZaliT uzrunvelyofa. masena gaocebuli iyo armiaSi gamefebuli umZimesi situaciiT - jariskacebs ar gaaCndaT saTanado aRWurviloba, tansacmeli, sakvebi, ver iRebdnen kuTvnil xelfass. moSlili iyo wesrigi da 130,000 iani armiidan mxolod 30,000 Tu iyo mzad samsaxurisaTvis.


masena dauRalavad Sromobda, raTa mosalodnel sabrZolo operaciebs misi armia momzadebuli Sexvedroda. man gaamagra qalaqis forTifikacia da Seqmna 25,000 iani mobiluri razmi, romelsac genuis mimdebare teritoriebis dacva evaleboda. mTavarsardals gegmebis ganxorcielebaSi resursebis nakleboba uSlida xels. amasTan, genua yovel Rame ibombeboda britaneTis sazRvao Zalebis mier, rasac Tan daerTo 5 aprils 60,000-iani avstriuli armiis Seteva. Semdegi ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi, masena mTeli ZalebiT Tavs icavda da cdilobda SeenarCunebina nicasTan kavSiri, magram mudmivma zewolam aiZula moSimSile frangTa nawilebi ukan daexia da qalaqis kedlebSi gamagrebuliyo. 24 aprils admiralma jorj keiTsma danebebis ultimatumi wauyena frangebs. masenam uaryo misi winadadeba da ganacxada:`genuas daicaven ukanaskneli Zalebis amowurvamde~.


maisSi SetevaTa seriebis ganxorcielebiT masenam alyis garRveva scada. masenasadmi gagzavnil werilSi, romlis mixedviT damxmare nawilebi 1 ivnisisaTvis unda gamoCeniliyo genuasTan, napoleoni werda:`sarezervo armia ukve moemarTeba. me am RamiT movemgzavrebi. imedi maqvs bolomde SeinarCunebT poziciebs ukidures SemTxvevaSi 1 ivnisamde mainc.~ cxra dRis Semdeg man kidev erTxel gaamxneva masena - `mZime mdgomareobaSi xarT, magram me mamxnevebs is faqti, rom genuaSi Tqven xar. es aris SemTxveva, rodesac erTi adamiani 20,000 -s udris.~


sinamdvileSi, sarezervo armiiT napoleoni genuis ganTavisuflebis nacvlad milanSi Cavida, sadac 6 dRe dahyo. maisis bolos, genuaSi Savi Wiris epidemia gavrcelda, rasac qalaqis mosaxleobis ajanyeba mohyva. ivnisis dasawyisSi gaimarTa tyveTa gacvlis Taobaze molaparakebebi, magram qalaqis mosaxleoba da garnizonis nawili kapitulacias apirebda. masenam ar icoda, rom avstriuli armiis general peter ots nabrZanebi hqonda moexsna qalaqis alya, radgan napoleoni, romelmac am droisaTvis ukve gadakveTa wminda bernardis gadasasvleli, safrTxes uqmnida avstrielTa ZiriTad Zalebs. oti Tavis mxriv alyis gagrZelebas moiTxovda. molaparakebebi grZeldeboda da 4 ivniss, rodesac masenas armias sursaTis erTi dRis maragi hqonda darCenili, msaena wavida daTanxmda avstrielTa pirobebs, romelTa mixedviTac frangul armias genua unda daetovebina, magram `Tu satyva kapitulacia iqneboda sadme dawerili an warmoTqmulic ki~ masena molaparakebaTa gawyvetiT imuqreboda. ori dRis Semdeg, frangulma armiam sruli aRWurvilobiT marSirebiT datova qalaqi da safrangeTisaken mimaval gzas gauyva, xolo armiis mcire jgufi zRviT gaemgzavra. es iyo sabrZolo istoriSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani alyis dasasruli, romelic iyo Seupovrobis, simamacisa da simtkicis demonstrireba. am Tvisebebs kidev erTxel ayavs masena im kategoriaSi, romelsac mxolod napoleoni ekuTvnoda.


genuis alyam, romelic samoci dRis ganmavlobaSi grZeldeboda, gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa napoleonis strategiaSi. avstrielebma didi Zalebi gadmoasroles qalaqis alyaSi mosaqcevad, ramac saSualeba misca napoleons gadaekveTa wminda bernardis gadasasvleli da sanam otis Zalebidan Sesabamis Sevsebas miiRebda, napoleonma marengosTan sruliad gaanadgura general miSel melasis armia. frangTa genuidan evakuaciis sami kviris Semdeg, napoleoni masenas werda:`me ar SemiZlia ufro metad davafaso Cemi Sendami ndoba, vidre respublikis pirveli armiis (italiis armiis) xelmZRvaneloba Cagabaro.~ masenas Tavdacvis mniSvneloba avstrielebmac daafases - avstrielTa Stabis ufrosi werda:` Tqven ara aleqsandriaSi, aramed genuaSi gaimarjveT~. Tumca Teqvsmeti wlias Semdeg napoleoni Semdegnairad ixsenebs genuis alyas:`me yovelTvis moTminebas vkargav, rodesac am Tavdacvaze(genuis alyis dros), saubroben rogorc simtkicis saocrebaze.~
ori Tvis Semdeg masena kvlav italiis armiis saTaveSia. male gamovlinda finansuri sakiTxebis mowesrigebloba, romelSic masenas daqvemdebarebuli ramdenime piri aRmoCnda gareuli da misi administraciuli SesaZleblobebis Taobaze garkveuli eWvebi gaCnda. Sesabamisd, igi gadaayenes dakavebuli Tanamdebobidan da aiZules grZelvadiani Svebuleba aeRo. man parizis dasavleTiT, rueilis midamoebSi cixedarbazi SeiZina da Semdegi oTxi weliwadi Tavisi ojaxis - meuRlisa da sami Svilis garemocvaSi gaatara. magram masena ver Segueboda Tavis gadadgomas. swored man gadaaCina respublika ciurixTan brZolaSi, man uzrunvelyo bonapartes warmateba marengosTan da yovelive amis jildod iZulebiTi gadadgoma ergo wilad.
1805 wels safrangeTis winaaRmdeg mesame koaliciis omi daiwyo. italiis armia ricxobrivad didi upiratesobis mqone erchercog Karlis avstriul armias daupirispirda. napoleonma, romelic am droisaTvis ukve imperatori iyo, dauyovnebliv masena Cauyena italiis armias saTaveSi. misi instruqciebiT masenas unda Seekavebina mteri, sanam TviTon napoleoni germaniaSi ar Cavidoda axlad Seqmnili didi armiiT. sanam avstriis udidesi armia saukeTeso generlis xelmZRvanelobiT italiaSi moqmedebda, napoleoni daupirispirdeboda armiis mcire nawils, romelsac saTaveSi erT-erTi Cveulebrivi generali edga saTaveSi. mixedavad amisa napoleons ar gauzrdia masenas Zalebi, romelic 41 000 jariskacs Seadgenda da romelsac Karlis 90 000 ian armiasTan brZola moeloda.


napoleonis winaaRmdeg bavariaSi, ulmTan, erchercog ferdinandisa da general karl von makis nawilebma marcxi ganicades. am droisaTvis, masenam daikava veroneta da iaZula erchercogis SenaerTebi kaldieros maRlobebze ganlagebuli Tavisi poziciebisaken ukan daexiaT. masenam ar icoda 19 oqtombers napoleonis mier ulmTan mopovebuli wamatebis Sesaxeb. 28 oqtombers igi Tavs daesxa Karlis armias. sam dRes gagrZelda mwvave Seteva avsrtielTa rigebze, magram frangebma mainc ver SesZles mowinaaRmdegis poziciebis daZleva; magram ulmTan ganviTarebuli movlenebis Setyobis Semdeg, Karlma ukan daxeva brZana. napoleonis Stabis ufrosma, bertiem masenas avstrielTa ukan miyola da miwinaaRmdegis sruli ganadgureba ubrZana:` Tqven mters SeuCerebliv unda miyveT.. imisaTvis, rom mas aRar SeeZlos Cvens Zalebze Setevis ganxorcieleba, rodesac franguli Zalebi ruseTis armias daupirispirdeba.~ masena eloda aseT brZanebas da rodesac es Setyobineba miiRo, igi ukve veneciidan sloveniisken ukan daxeul avstriul nawilebze Setevebs axorcielebda. masena mxolod maSin SeCerda, rodesac frangulma nawilebma, 80 milis gavlis Semdeg, laibaxs da erchercog Karlis mier gamagrebul marburgs miaRwies. 1805 wels napoleonis austrelicSi mopovebuli gamarjvebis Semdeg, daido zavi, romelmac daasrula mesame koaliciis omi.


erchercogi karlis damarcxebis miuxedavad, romlis Sedegad austerlicTan ruseTis armia veRar gaZlierda avstriuli nawilebiT, 1805 wlis kampaniis dros napoleonma gaakritika masenas operaciebi. igi Tavis Zmas, Jozefs werda:`masena metad indiferentulad moqmedebda. kaldierosTan damarcxebis mizezi misi nawilebis mcdari ganlageba iyo... me ukmayofilo var ara misi simamaciT, aramed mis mier gamoCenili unariT.~


napoleoni ar iTvaliswinebda im garemoebas, rom mteri masenas SenaerTebs ricxobrivad TiTqmis orjer sWarbobda; rom mas unda SeenarCunebina saSiS mowinaaRmdegeze mudmivi zewola, rom Tavisi mcire ZalebiT mas venisTan brZola unda gaemarTa avstrielTa garnizonisaTvis da swored man daamarcxa evropis erT-erTi yvelaze niWieri generali; rom ara masena da misi damsaxurebani, erchercogi karli da misi armia gamarjvebas miaRwevdnen austerlicTan. umetes SemTxvevaSi masenam warmatebiT gaarTva Tavi napoleonis brZanebebs da kidev erTxel daamtkica, rom mas jer kidev SeeZlo SebrZoleboda evropis saukeTeso mxedarTmTavrebs.


omis damTavrebis Semdeg, masena neapolis mefis, Jozef bonapartes meTaurobis qveS, saTaveSi Caudga axlad Seqmnil neapolis armias. Tavisi axali TanamdebobiT ukmayofilo masenam metad mcire enTuziazmiT Seudga gaetas alyaSi moqcevas. alya daiwyo Tebervalsi da martis Sua ricxvebisaTvis 48 saalyo Txrilidan mxolod 10 iyo mzad. saartelerio batareebi aprilis dasawyisSi damTavrda. 4 maiss britanulma flotma gadmotvirTa 32 futiani sazRvao qvemexebi da resursebi, ramac kidev ufro gaarTula masenas problemebi. qalaqis garnizonma ramodenime warmatebuli Seteva ganaxorciela da demoralizirebulma frangma samxedro inJinrebma mxolod ivlisSi moaxerxes 80 qvemexis, 5 haubicis da 22 mortiris brZolisaTvis momzadeba. gaetis mombardireba 7 ivliss daiwyo. aTi dRis Semdeg, qalaqis kedelSi or adgilze garRveva gaCnda. garnizoni danebda da ori dRis Semdeg frangebi qalaqSi Sevidnen. alya dasrulda, romelmac 2000 frangi jariskaci imsxverpla.


TiTqos alyis dros gaweuli Sroma ar yofiliyo sakmarisi, 1 agvistos Jozef bonapartem masenas daakisra sami diviziis ZalebiT CaexSo kalabriis ajanyeba. masenas, Tavisi samxedro karieris istoriis manZilze pirvelad mouxda ewarmoebina saomari opeeraciebi ajanyebul fanatikos mosaxleobasTan. oTxi Tvis Semdeg, misma SenaerTebma SeZles daemarcxebinaT amboxebuli mosaxleoba. masenam male gaaTviTcnobiera, rom oponentTa daZlevis yvelaze efeqturi saSualeba general Jan reineris taqtika iyo, romelic ajanyebuli mosaxleobis,maTi TavSesafari soflebis srul ganadgurebas iTvaliswinebda. es iyo sastiki brZola, romlis damTavrebisaTvis masena mzad iyo miemarTa nebismieri saSualebisaTvis.


dekemberSi masena Jozefis nebarTvis miRebis Semdeg gadadga Tanamdebobidan. kalabriis mitovebis da didi armiis xelmZRvanelobis surviliT, igi napoleonTan gamocxadda igi saTaveSi Caudga marSal lanis me-5 korpuss da martSi mdinareebis narevsa da omeulevis gaswvriv, varSavis CrdiloeTiT ganlagda. masenas ar miuRia aqtiuri monawileoba fridlendTan gamarTul brZolaSi, magram ruseTis armiis ramdenime seriozuli Seteva moigeria da amiT, strategiuli TvalsazrisiT, xeli Seuwyo napoleonis saboloo gamarjvebas.


tilzitis xelSukrulebis da meoTxe koaliciis omis dasrulebis Semdeg, masena parizSi dabrunda. poloneTis kampaniis monawile sxva marSlebTan erTad, parizSi sasaxlis SesaZenad masena daajildoves napoleonis specialuri stipendiiT. Tumca, mravali kampaniis ganmavlobaSi dagrovili didZali qoneba masenas uflebas aZlevda ise waremarTa Tavisi cxovrebis wesi, rogorsac safrangeTSi mxolod ramdenime metad SeZlebuli adamiani Tu misdevda. 1808 wels daiwyi omi espanetSi, magram rigi mizezebis gamo masena ar iqna gagzavnili am frontze.


1809 wels, rodesac avstrielebi cdilobdnen germanuli xalxebi ganmaTavisuflebel brZolaSi CaeTriaT, napoleonma masena axlad Seqmnil germanuli armiis me-4 korpuss Cauyena saTaveSi. frangTa armia, romelic ricxobrivad meoTxed milions aRwevda, pireneis naxevarkunZulze ganlagda. napoleonis axal armiaSi ramdenime germanuli nawilic iyo gaerTianebuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom jariskacebi umetesad axalgazrda da gamoucdelebi itvnen, masena kmyofili iyo rom maT umetesobas frangebi Seadgendnen.
armiaSi masenas dabrunebis Semdeg, bavariaSi erchercog karlis 200,000-nma armiam ukuaqcia brZolisaTvis moumzadebeli berties Zalebi. SeSfoTebulma napoleonma, romelic jer kidev parizSi imyofeboda, donauvorTsSi ganlagebul mTavar StabSi instruqciebi gaagzavna. magram bertiem saTanadod ver miiRo misi miTiTebani da imis magier, rom sakuTari Zalebis koncentracia moexdina, man franguli armia 75 milis frontze gaSala. orives, masenasa da marSal luis-nikolas davus esmodaT, rom aseTi taqtika Secdoma iyo. protestis gamoTqmiT, magram brZanebis damorCilebiT, davum ZiriTadi armiisagan CrdiloeTiT, ratisbonisken daixia, xolo masena ar daemorCila brZanebas da darwmunebuli iyo ra, miRebuli instuqciebis mcdarobaSi, Tavisi ZalebiT aiCaCis (Aichach) da pfafenhofenis mimarTulebiT moZraoba ganagrZo.
17 aprils napoleoni donauvorTsSi Cavida. berties Secdomis SetyobisTanave, davu ratisbonidan dauyovnebliv ukan gamoiwvia, xolo masenas Zalebs augsburgidan aiCaCis mimarTulebiT gadaadgileba ubrZana. am brZanebis molodinSi masenam ukve miaRwia daniSnulebis wertils. 20 aprils, rodesac davu jer kidev ratisbonis midamoebSi imyofeboda, lanis korpusebiT da marSal fransua-Jozef lefevris germanul nawilebiT, napoleonma Seutia da gaanadgura abensbergTan ganlagebuli avstriuli Zalebi. avstrielebma landSutis mimarTulebiT ukan daixies, romelTa avangards generali iohan hileris SenaerTebi qmnidnen. amave dros avstrielTa ukandasaxevi gzebis moWris mizniT, landSutis mimarTulebiT masenas Zalebi moZraobdnen. avstrielTa daRlilma da dauZlurebulma Zalebma, romelTac or dReSi 50 milis manZili gaiares, landSutSi mxolod 21 aprils miaRwies. sul ramdenime saaTSi qalaqSi lanis Zalebi da napoleonis piradi SenaerTebi SeiWrnen. 10, 000 avstrieli Seewira frangul armias, romelsac gamarjvebasTan erTad didZali resursebis maragic Cauvarda xelT.


magram erchercogis mTavari Zalebi jer kidev ar CarTuliyo brZolaSi. napoleonma Seityo, rom davus razmebi ekmiuhlTan (Eckmuhl) avstrielTa samaod did SenaerTebs gadaawydnen. 22 aprils, masenasa da lanis TanxlebiT, man CrdiloeTisaken gadainacvla. Semdeg dRes frangebma ratisboni daikaves da avstrielebma dunais gavliT venisaken daixies. 3 maiss, ebersbergTan gamarTul sisxlismRvrel brZolaSi, mdinare traunis gadakveTis dros, mxaris mZime Wriloba miiRo masenas pirvelma moadgilem, peletma. sabolood, frangebma daikaves qalaqic da cixesimagrec sakmaod didi msxverplis fasad, Tumca igive Sedegis miRweva, gavilebiT naklebi danakargiTac iyo SesaZlebeli.


13 maiss venis dakavebis Semdeg, napoleonma mdinare dunais orive napiras ganlagebuli erchercogis armiaze TavdasxmisaTvis mzadebas Seudga. man masenas ubrZana mdinareze aego ramodenime xidi, romlebic lobaus kunZuls sofel asperinTan daakavSirebda. mTeli Semdegi kviris ganmavlobaSi me-4 diviziis Semadgenloba venasa da mis SemogarenSi xidebisaTvis dasamTavreblad saWiro masalas agrovebda. 20 maisisaTvis damTavrda samuSaoebi xidebis asagebad, romlebic mdinaris gayolebiT ori milis sigrZeze iyo gaWimuli. masenam generali gabriel-Jan molitoris divizia asperinSi ganalaga, xolo general budes Zalebs ki erTi milis moSorebiT, eslingis modamoebSi ubrZana ganlageba. general antoni-arl lasales kavaleria or sofel Sua arsebul dablobze ganlagda. mdinaris meore mxares ganlagda sarezervo ori diviziac. masena da pele soflis eklesiis gumbaTze avidnen raTa banakebSi danTebuli cecxlis mixedviT avstrielTa Zalebi SeefasebinaT. im Rames napoleonma samxedro TaTbiri moiwvia. masena erTaderTi marSali iyo, romelmac maT mier dakavebuli poziciis vargisianobaze gamoTqva sawinaaRmdego mosazreba.


21 maisis adrian dilas gamarTlda masenas mier navarudevi yvela SesaZlo saSiSroeba. or sofels Soris moqceul 30 000 frang jariskacs moulodnelad Tavs daesxa avstrielTa 100,000-iani armia. lanma Tavis Tavze aiRo eslingTan ganlagebuli bodes diviziis xelmZRvaneloba, xolo marSali Jan-baptist besieri ki kavalerias Caudga saTaveSi. avstrielTa Setevebis erT-erTi mTavari mimarTuleba asperni iyo, sadac masenasa da molitoris SedarebiT umniSvnelo Zalebi iyvnen ganlagebuli.
frangi generlebi mTeli TavganwirviT ebrZodnen mowinaaRmdeges. TviTon asperni am mZime dRis ganmavlobaSi 13-jer gadavida xelidan xelSi. lanis SenaerTebma sami mwvave Seteva moigeries, besieris kavaleriamac ramdenime mamaci manevri Seasrula, riTac mniSvnelovnad Seumsubuqa infanterias mowinaaRmdegis zewola. sanam frangTa rezevi movidoda, avstrielebma daangries mdinareze aRmarTuli xidebi.


Zalebis ukiduresi daZabviT frangebma SeZles xidis aRdgena, magram napoleoni ukve gacilebiT didi krizisis winaSe warsdga, albaT didi armiis Seqmnis Semdeg yvelaze ufro seriozuli problemis winaSe - napoleons SeeZlo lobausaken daexia Tavisi SenaerTebi, an unda gaeriska da saswrafod Seevso Tavisi dasustebuli Zalebi.– am gadamwyvet momentSi napoleonma gariskva arCia. . .


masena metad mZime mdgomareobaSi iyo Cavardnili, magram ukan daxeva mas fiqradac ar mosvlia. SemdegSi napoleoni wminda elenes kunZulze yofnisas gaixsenebs:`masenas memkvidreobiT ergo araCveulebrivi simamace da simtkice, romelic safrTxis gazrdasTan erTad imatebda. gamarjvebis Semdeg igi kvlav mzad iyo brZolisaTvis, romelSic sul axlaxans gaimarjva.~ da marTlac, Sedegebis miuxedavad, Semdeg dRes masena aspernis dasacavad kvlav mzad iyo. man Tavisi divizia mniSvnelovani danakargebis gareSe SeinarCuna da momdevno dRes igi bolo wuTamde daicavs Tavis poziciebs. napoleoni masenas damxmare Zalebs dahpirda. Ramis ganmavlobaSi lanis SenaerTebi da kavaleriis nawili eslingisaken gadaadgildnen, sadac amjerad frangTa 60,000 ianma armiam moiyara Tavi.


momdevno dRes brZola dilis 5 saaTze daiwyo. masenam ukan daixia, magram erTi saaTis Semdeg man kvlav daibruna Tavisi poziciebi. avstrielTa Semdegi Setevebi uSedego gamodga. napoleonma mtris dacvis xazSi garRveva aRmoaCina da ubrZana lans dauyovnebliv gadasuliyo Setevaze. masena SeuerTda moieriSeebs. sanam lanis SenaerTebi avstrielTa centrs gaarRvevdnen, erchercogis artileriam metad mZime zarali miayena frangebs. Seteva SesamCnevad SeaCera brZolis wina xazze Tavad erchercogis gamoCenamac. am kritikul momentSi xelaxla Catyda xidi, ramac Seaferxa frangTa damxmare Zalebis moZraoba. lanma droebiT SeaCera Seteva da mdinareze gadasasvlelis aRdgenis Semdeg Tavis poziciebs daubrunda.
avstrielebma, arsebuli situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, orive, aspernis da eslingis mimarTulebiT masiuri Seteva wamoiwyes. gacxarebuli brZolis da umZimesi danakargebis safasurad, frangebma moigeries es Setevebi. SuadRisas napoleonma gadawyvita mTeli Tavisi ZalebiT lobaus kunZulisaken daexia. masenas armiis marcxena flangis moZraobis organizeba daevala da aspern-eslingis sisxlismRvreli brZola dasasruls miuaxlovda.
eWvgareSea am brZolam udidesi gavlena iqonia napoleonze. es iyo pirveli realuri damarcxeba. imperatorisTvis es ar unda yofiliyo gasakviri, radgan man daarRvia brZolis yvela is principi, romelTa saSualebiTac warsulSi is mudam gamarjvebuli gamodioda. misi jariskacebisa da oficrebis araCveulebrivi Tavgamodebis gareSe asperin-eselingis brZola udides tragediad iqceoda safrangeTis istoriaSi. meore mxriv, am Suagul katastrofaSi ganvloa masenas cxovrebis erT-erTma udidesma saaTebma. igi kvlav suliT Zlieri darCa, SeinarCuna simSvide da swori gadawyvetilebis miRebis unari. am brZolaSi daiRupa 20 000-ze meti frangi jariskaci, maT Soris brZolaSi daeca marSali lanic, avstrielTa mxridan ki msxverplTa ricxvi 25,000 Seadgenda.


napoleonma mTeli Tavisi ZalebiaTvis Tavmoyra gadawyvita. paralelurad didi yuradReba daeTmo mdinareze gadasasvlelebis agebasa da Soreuli italiidan da adriatikis sanapiroebidan damxmare nawilebis gamoZaxebas.
ivlisSi franguli armiis ricxvma kunZul lobauze 150,000-ss miaRwia. 4-5 ivliss, Rames, xidebi gadakveTa frangTa avangardma masenas meTaurobiT. gviani SuadRisaTvis, avstrielTa poziciebTan, gros enzerdorfTan ukve 100,000 frangi jariskaci iyoATavmoyrili.


masenas SenerTebi ganlagebuli iyvnen armiis marcxena flangze. napoleoni apirebda Setevis ganxorcielebas avstrielTa marcxena frTaze, magram erchercogma karlma gamoicno es Canafiqri da Tavad Seutia masenas SenaerTebs. Semdgomi Seteva ganxorcielda franguli armiis centrze, sadac ganlagebuli iyvnen marSal Jan-batist bernadotis saqsonuri nawilebi. sanam masena cdilobda SenarCunebina Tavisi poziciebi, aderklasTan bernadotis saqsonebma veRar gauZles mZime zewolas, ukuiqcnen da frangebis dacvis xazSi garRveva Seiqmna.


napoleonma mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad masenas mimarTa. masenam Seicvala mdgomareoba da princ evgeni de boharnes italiur SenaerTebTan erTad armiis centrSi gadainacvla. sanam frangi generlebi aderklasTan arsebuli mdgomareobis gamosworebas cdilobdnen, safrangeTis armiis marcxena frTa erchercogis armiis 30 aTasiani nawilis Semotevas veRar akavebda. napoleoni masenas Suagul brZolaSi Sexvda da ukiduresad saxifaTo manevris Sesruleba daakisra - mas Tavisi razmebiT maqsimaluri siswrafiT unda emoZrava Setevaze gadmosuli avstrielebis paralelurad da unda SeeCerebina mtris Seteva marcxena frTaze.


masenam brwyinvaled gaarTva Tavi am rTul amocanas, ramac saSualeba misca davus marjvena flangidan Semoevlo karlis armiisaTvis. amave dros avstriul SenaerTebze ganxorcielda 113 qvemexisagan Semdgari saartelerio batareis Seteva, rasac Tan daerTo erchercogis armiis cenralur nawilze masiuri kontrSeteva. safrangeTis armiam win waiwia da karli, SeSfoTebuli im garemoebiT, rom misma Zmam ver SeZlo damxmare Zalebis gadmosrola, iZulebuli gaxda ukandaxevis brZaneba gaeca. 1809 wlamde evropis istoriaSi am udides brZolaSi orive mxarem metad mZime danakargebi ganicada. msxverplTa ricxvma frangebis mxridan 30 000 Seadgina, xolo avstrielTa mxridan am brZolas 37 000 jariskaci Seewira.


ukan daxeuli avstriuli Zalebis miyola masenas daekisra. avstriul ariergardTan ramdenime seriozuli Setakebis, gansakuTrebiT ki 11 ivliss cnaimTan mwvave Setakebis Semdeg, erchercogma dazaveba iTxova. es moTxovna safuZvlad daedo Sonbrunis xelSekrulebas, romliTac damTavrda me-5 koaliciis omi. napoleonma, iTvaliswinebda ra masenas udides damsaxurebasa da rols am kampaniaSi, gadawyvita dauyovnebliv daejildoebina igi. xelSekrulebis xelmoweris dResve, parizSi gamoica `patentis werili~. magram `aspernis princis~ titulis miniWebis nacvlad, im soflis saxsovrad, sadac masenam Tavisi didi simamace da Seupovroba gamoaCina, napoleonma gaaerTiana ori sofeli da masena `eslingis princad~ gamoacxada.
33 wliani samxedro samsaxuris Semdeg masenam daikmayofila Zalauflebis, didebisa da simdidrisaken ltolva. eWvgareSe iyo, rom man miaRwia Tavisi profesiis umaRles wertils. mTels evropaSi igi, napoleonis Semdeg, Tavisi drois erT-erT udides mxedarTmTavrad aRiares.


magram didebasa da wodebebTan erTad, masenas samsaxuridan grZelvadiani an sulac mudmivi Svebulebis areba surda, romlis gatarebas ruelis cixe-darbazSi imedovnebda, sadac is aRidgenda Tavis janmrTelobas. mravalwliani dauRalavi Sromis Sedegad, masena sustad grZnobda Tavs. misi filtvebi metad seriozul mdgomareobaSi iyo - mxedarTmTavars wlebis manZilze awuxebda sisxliani xveleba da jer kidev Tan sdevda cxra wlis win genuis alyis dros gadatanili cieb-cxelebisagan SemorCenili Setevebi.
misi simdidre, mTavrobis wevrebze misi gavlena da sawinaaRmdego sqesisadmi midrekileba TandaTan niadags umzadebda masenas, raTa igi ganmartovebuliyo Tavis samflobeloSi da dro sakuTari survilebis aRsrulebisaTvis daeTmo. mraval brZolaSi brwyinvale gamarjvebebma masenas Tavisi xalxis da iperatoris madliereba moutana, magram es aRiareba mxedarTmTavars sakmaod Zviri daujda. igi mzad iyo damsaxurebulad gadamdgariyo samsaxuridan.
masenas sabrZolo xelovnebam Tavis piks ciurixTan brZolis dros miaRwia, misi SesaZleblobebi brwyinvaled gamovlinda vagramisa da aspernis brZolebSi. magram aTwleulobiT aqtiurma kampaniebma Tavisi kvali daamCnies masenas. 51 wels miRweuli mxedarTmTavars ukve seriozulad Seerya janmrTeloba da 1809 wlis kampaniis dros igi ufro metad endoboda Tavisi oficrebis taqtikas, azrovnebasa da sabrZolo strategias. miuxedavad amisa masena kvlav Seucdomlad arCevda savele meTaurTa kandidatebs, romelTa magaliTs ciurixTan brZolaSi udino warmoadgens, an kidev reile genuasTan. germaniisa da portugaliis kampaniebSi masTan msaxurobdnen misi TanaSemweebi, ori Rirseuli oficeri, iseTebi, rogoric iyvnen Sarl sen-krua da pele, romlebic samxedro manevrebsa da taqtikur gadawyvetilebebSi mxedarTmTavris ZiriTad dasayrdens warmoadgenda.


1810 wlis gazafxulSi masena aqtiur samxedro cxovrebas naklebi SemarTebiT daubrunda, radgan asparezad mas pireneis naxevrakunZulze mimdinare CaxlarTuli frontis xazi miuCines. marTlac am adgilas dasamarda mravali generlis Tu marSlis reputacia. amave wlis aprilSi napoleonma axlad Seqmnil portugaliur armias Cauyena saTaveSi. masenam uari ganacxada da Seecada protesti gamoeTqva am Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis Sesaxeb. mxedarTmTavarma Tanxmoba mxolod napoleonTan piradi audienciis Semdeg ganacxada. mas Sepirdnen portugaliis dasapyrobad da welingtonis anglo-portugaliuri armiis damarcxebisaTvis aucilebel amouwurav resursebsa da cocxal Zalas. da amgvarad, neis, Junos da reniesTan erTad, didi winaaRmdegobebiTa da mcire enTuziazmiT daiwyo masenas ukanaskneli kampania.


masenam Tavis im Jamindel satrfosTan - Tvrameti wlis parizis operis balerinas, henriet lebertonTan erTad datova rueli. mxedarTmTavars male misi pirveli TanaSemwe pelec SeuerTda. 10 maiss masenam miaRwia valiadolidSi ganlagebul generalur Stabs, sadac igi piradi Semadgenlobis sxva danarCen oficrebs Sexvda.


me-6 korpusi, romelsac saTaveSi edga mamaci marSali nei, ganlagebuli iqna siudad rodrigos cixesimagris garSemo. cixesimagris alya gagrZelda general Jan-andoS Junos me-8 korpusis mosvlamde. SeerTebulma Zalebma velingtonis armia 30 milis manZilze ukuaqcies. masena SesaZleblad Tvlida agreTve pirdapiri ieriSi mietana mokavSireTa Zalebze. mxedarTmTavris es gegma Seicvala napoleonis instruqciebis Semdeg, romelic iTvaliswinebda agreTve almeidas cixesimagris aRebas, romelic faqtiurad portugaliis sasazRvro cixesimagre iyo.


aRniSnuli gegmis sisruleSi moyvanis Semdeg, morig mizans lisabonis aReba da armiis portugaliidan sruli gandevna warmoadgenda. magram male problemebic wamoiWra. napoleonis dapirebuli amouwuravi cocxali Zala ar Canda, ris gamoc frnguli armia 65,000 jariskacamde davida; SeuzRudavi resursebic mxolod im raodenobiT ganisazRvreboda, rasac franguli armia dasustebul qveyanaSi moipoveboda. masena gaocebuli da amave dros imedgacruebuli iyo arsebuli situaciiT - mas aklda ara marto resursebi da cocxali Zala, misi sabrZolo moqmedebani da strategiac SezRuduli iyo napoleonis brZanebebiT, romelic am dros aTasi miliT iyo daSorebuli brZolis areals. erTaderTi rac generals darCenoda, mTeli Tavisi SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT imparetoris brZanebaTa unaklod Sesruleba iyo.

masenam saalyo operaciaTa warmarTva general neis da mis razmebs miando. operaciebis ganxorcielebis dros isedac mcire resursebi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda da mxedarTmTavarma gadawyvita neis sainJinro saqmeebis xelmZRvaneli Tavisi kandidaturiT Seecvala. masenas Carevas neis mxridan uaryofiTi reaqcia mohyva. urTierTobebi or generals Soris TandaTanobiT gauaresda, rasac sabolood kampaniis dasasrulamde neis meTurobidan gadadgoma mohyva. siudad rodrigos garRveva mxolod 2 Tvis alyiT da 16 dRis bombardirebis Semdeg gaxda SesaZlebeli. 10 ivliss masenam qalaqis mmarTvels andres herastis gaugzavna bolo, rigiT mesame moTxovna kapitulaciis Sesaxeb. herastini zustad Setevis dawyebis win gamocxadda da danebda. mxedarTmTavarma daufasa mmarTvels saqcieli da qalaqs Tavdasxmis saSineleba aarida.


siudad rodrigos mcovrebma da qalaqis garnizonma medgari winaaRmdegoba gauwies frangebs, magram isini Sesabamisad damarcxebuli iqnen. masenam SeZlo Tavi gamarjvebulad gamoecxadebina, magram mas jer kidev awuxebda armiis zurgis momaragebisa da resursebis mougvarebeli problemebi. faqtiurad warmoudgeneli iyo mis razmebs Seegrovebina da gadaezida 50,000 jariskacisaTvis samyofi sakvebi da sxva aucilebeli resursebi, an SeekribaT sakmao raodenobis pirutyvi teritoriaze, sadac sami wlis ganmavlobaSi ganuwyvetliv imyofeboda da marSirebda esa Tu is armia.


almeidas alyisaTvis mzadebas sakmaod didi xani dasWirda, saalyo Txrilebi mxolod 15 agvistosaTvis iyo mzad da qalaqis dabombva mxolod 12 dRis Semdeg daiwyo. imave saRamos me-4 batareidan gamosroli erTi yumbara qalaqis denTis sawyobis ezoSi Camovarda. yumbaris afeTqebam gamoiwvia sawyobis afeTqeba, sadac 150 000 funti denTi da milionamde fistoni inaxeboda. saSinelma afeTqebam daangria qalaqis umetesi nawili, Seiwira almeidas garnizonis 600 jariskaci da qalaqis 600 macxovrebeli. molaparakebebi Semdeg dRes 28 agvistos daiwyo. qalaqis mmarTvelma kapitulacia gamoacxada da Rirsebis dacviT Cabarda garnizonic.
magram portugaliaSi aqtiuri SeWra mxolod resursebis aRdgenis Semdeg 15 seqtembers moxerxda. male masenas SeuerTda general Jan-luis renies me-2 korpusi 20 000 jariskaciT, raTa uzrunvelyo zurgis problemebis mogvareba. laSqroba centralur portugaliaSi aRsavse iyo moulodneli safrTxiT. franguli armiis winsvla siudad rodrigos da almeidas cixesimagreTa alyam sakmaod Seaferxa. am drois ganmavlobaSi velingtonma mTeli portugaliis samefos mobilizacia moaxdina. samxedro samsaxurSi gaiwvies yvela mamakaci 16-dan 60 wlamde. man gamosca brZanebulebani, romelTa Tanaxmad dangreul iqna yvela gza, romliTac frangTa armias SeeZlo gadaadgileba da aRimarTa gamagrebuli adgilebi. igive brZaneba iTvaliswinebda mimdebare adgilebis udabnod gadaqcevas erTgvari `gadamwvari miwis~ principis gamoyenebiT. adgilobrivi macxovreblebisagan iZulebis wesiT amoRebul iqna yvela saWiro resursi, ris Semdeg isini evakuirebuli iqnen saSiSi zonebidan. mdinareebidan amoiRes navebi da TavdacvisaTvis mniSvnelovan yvela poziciaze iyo ganwesebuli specialurad Seqmnili miliciebi. magram SesaZloa mTeli es mzadeba fuWi aRmoCeniliyo.


portugaliis armiis maioris, maria-xose neves kostas mier SemoTavazebuli gegmis mixedviT da velingtonis brZanebiT aSenebuli iqna dReisaTvis kargad cnobili tores vedras TavdacviTi xazebi. es xazebi warmoadgenda 165 reduts, sadac ganlagebuli iyo 628 qvemexi da daaxlovebiT 40 000 jariskaci. igi ganlagebuli iyo lisabonis CrdiloeTiT mdebare mTebze. es konstruqcia gaTvaliswinebuli iyo lisabonis, misi mosaxleobis da velingtonis anglo - portugaliuri armiis Tavdasacavad frangTa Tavdasxmisagan. im SemTxvevaSi Tu frangebi mainc gaarRvevdnen dacvis xazs, samefo sazRvao Zalebs mzad hqondaT sabrZolo eskadroni da satransporto flotilia mokavSireTa armiis evakuaciisaTvis.


velingtonis saguldagulod miRebul zomebs Tan erTvoda is garemoebac, rom masenas armiam aT dReSi gamoiara 210 mili. velingtoni 25 seqtembramde ukan ixevda, xolo Semdeg sera de busakos wverze gamagrda. mokavSireTa damarcxebis surviliT Sebyrobilma masenam, adekvaturi dazvervis da aucilebeli winaswari dagegmvis gareSe brmad Seutia mtris miudgomel poziciebs.


27 seqtembers neis da renies razmebma mTaze Seteva ganaxorcieles. 5 000 msxverplis da gmiruli SemarTebis miuxedavad, frangTa pirveli Seteva mogeriebul iqna. sabednierod meore dRes napovni iqna gza, romelic iZleoda busakos mTis Semovlis saSualebas. velingtoni iZulebuli gaxda saCqarod ukan daexia. mokavSireTa jari ukan daxevas ganagrZobda 12 oqtombramde da sabolood tores vedras xazebze gamagrda, lisabonidan 40 milis daSorebiT. am droisaTvis xazebis damcvelTa ricxvi 80,000 aRwevda.
velingtonis TavdacviT zRudeze ramdenime warumatebeli ieriSis Semdeg, masenam erT-erTi Tavisi generali napoleonTan pirdapiri mimarTviT parizSi gaagzavna. kampaniis dasasruleblad da `ingliseli leopardis~ zRvaSi gasabruneblad igi damatebiT jars da saalyo artilerias moiTxovda. imperatoris pasuxis molodinSi masenam sakuTari Zalebi ukan daxia, sadac ukeTesi SesaZleblobebi iyo jariskacTa aRWurvilobisa da kvebis sakiTxebis mosagvareblad. dekembris bolos misi kurieri dabrunda parizidan da Camoitana napoleonis pasuxi, sadac is dauyovnebliv daxmarebas hpirdeboda. jarSi ukve SimSili iwyeboda. kvirebs Tveebi misdevda da armia mZime siZneleebs ganicdida. masena kvlav dapirebul daxmarebas eloda.
amave dros lisabonidan xalxisa da resursebis maragiT velingtonis armia dRiTidRe Zlierdeboda. mokavSireTa mxedarTmTavari SeSfoTebuli iyo masenas SeupovrobiT. omisa da koloniebis mdivnis - liverpulis lordisadmi werilSi igi werda:`namdvilad gamaocebelia is faqti, rom mterma amdeni xnis ganmavlobaSi SesZlo am qveyanaSi darCena da es aris franguli armiis SesaZleblobebis araCveulebrivi magaliTi. faqtia isic, rom maT aranairi maragi ar gaaCniaT da portugaliaSi Semosvlis Semdeg erTi werilic ki ar miuRiaT~. aseve velingtoni aRniSnavda:`me erT diviziasac ki ver SevinarCunebdi iseT adgilas, sadac maT SesZles aranakleb 60 000 kacisa da 20 000 cxovelis ori TviT SenarCuneba.~
Seupovarma masenam ki santaremTan 72 dRe dahyo, sanam ukan daxevis brZanebas gascemda.


18 Tebervals golegasTan Tavis SemadgenlobasTan Sexvedris Semdeg masena sabolood darwmunda ukan daxevis aucileblobaSi. sultma uari ganacxada danapirebze, daxmarebaze uari ganacxades sxva marSlebmac; ufro metic - napoleonma misi taqtikac Secvala. masenasTan gagzavnil Tavis bolo werilSi imperatori velingtonis armiasTan brZolis nacvlad, mis SeCerebas iTxovda. igi darwmunebuli iyo, rom britaneTis mTavrobaSi momxdari cvlilebebi aiZulebda velingtonis armias daetovebina portugalia. napoleonis gadawyvetilebis sxva SesaZlo axsna mdgomareobda im garemoebaSi, rom imperatoris azriT, Tu inglisi kvlav gaagrZelebda brZolas, misi Zalebi yvelaze nakleb safrTxes mTels evropaSi swored portugaliaSi Seqmnidnen. yvela SemTxvevaSi misma gadawyvetilebam masenas armia gardauvali damarcxebisaTvis gawira.


1811 wlis 5 marts Tavisi Zalagamoleuli da SimSiliT dasustebuli 41 000 jariskaciT da TiTqmis amowuruli resursebiT, masenam sabolood brZana santaremidan ukan daxeva. igi werda napoleons:`me imitom miviRe es gadawyvetileba, rom SeuZlebelia darCe im qveyanaSi 6 Tve, sadac Cven ar vfiqrobdiT, rom iq 15 dReze metis gaZleba SeiZleboda~.
frangebma ukan daixies da miuxedavad neis ramdenime brwyinvale operaciisa ariergardSi, velingtonis ganaxlebuli da kargad momaragebuli armiis devna aprilamde gagrZelda, sanam frangebi sabolood espaneTSi ar iqnen gandevnili. masenam dauyovnebliv gaagzavna parizSi Tavisi pirveli moadgile pele, raTa ganemarta garemoebani, romlebmac ganapirobes misi damarcxeba. napoleonma uari ganacxada peletTan saubarze. sabolood, rodesac isini Sexvdnen napoleonma ganacxada:`Tqven dakargeT yvelaferi, rac Tqven SegeZloT omSi dagekargaT. Tqven dakargeT jaris Rirseba, ukeTesi iqneboda TviTon armia dagekargaT. dalaxvros RmerTma! 60 aTasma frangma 30 aTasi ingliselis winaSe ukan daixia~. Semdeg Tvalebze creml momdgarma dasZina:`Tqven daTmeT msoflioSi saukeTeso infanteriis Rirseba~. mas Semdeg, rac pelets mieca saSualeba aexsna imperatorisTvis portugaliaSi warumateblobis realuri mizezebi, napoleonma daamata:`masenas ar sWirdeba Cemi patieba, me vafaseb mas. igi Cemi Zveli megobaria. mas jer kidev SeuZlia gamoadges Tavis ojaxs da qveyanas. miuxedavad imisa, rom is im asakSia, rodesac samSoblos dasacavad mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi omoben.~ aqve imperatorma aRniSna:`es aris misi bolo kampania. me minda mivce mas mterze revanSis aRebis Sansi, raTa misi dideba xelSeuxebeli darCes.~


masenas StabSi pele aprilis bolosaTvis dabrunda. erTi kviris Semdeg almeidas franguli garnizonis daxmarebis mizniT, frangebma kvlav Seuties velingtonis armias. masenam mokavSireTa armias fuentes de onorosTan gaumarTa ordRiani umZimesi brZola. besierisgan Sepirebuli resursebisa da daxmarebis gareSe darCenilma framgebma ver SeZles moZinaaRmdegeTa damarcxeba. erTi kviris Semdeg, praqtikuli mosazrebebiT, masena ganTavisuflebul iqna armiis meTaurobidan. misi aqtiuri samxedro kariera dasrulda.


samwuxarod, portugaliis am sabediswero kampaniaSi, rogorc meTaurs masenas ar hqonda saSualeba gamoevlina Tavisi SesaZleblobebi. mas ukve ganvlili hqonda Tavisi mTavarsardlobis saukeTeso periodi, maSin rodesac misi oponenti, velingtonis hercogi Tavis SesaZleblobebis zenitSi imyofeboda. magram am kampaniaSi mainc Cans misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Seupovroba, riTac masena da misi oficrebi napoleonis nakarnaxev strategias axorcieleben.
misi armia miznis gareSe iyo datovebuli. kampaniis miznebi gauqmebuli (an Secvlili) iyo da misi didi samxedro reputaciac sxvebis gaufrTxilebeli qcevis gamo iqna SebRaluli. mravali politikuri da samxedro problemebis gamo kampania uSedegod dasrulda da masenas saxels Crdili miadga. magram es kampania marto masenas da franguli armiis ganadgurebiT ar dasrulebula. es iyo napoleonis dasasrulis dasawyisic. tores vedras xazebidan velingtonis armiam gaagrZela winsvla da tuluzasTan gamarTul brZolaSi, ~espanuri kampaniis~ saboloo gamarjveba moipova. 4 dRis Semdeg napoleoni gadadga.


masenas samxedro karieras evropis istoriaSi mxolod ramdenime mxedarTmTavris miRwevebi Tu gautoldeba. sakuTar brwyinvale sabrZolo warmatebebTan erTad masenam didi roli iTamaSa mis daqvemdebarebasi myofi mraval oficris karieraSic,


marTlac, masTan erTad mebrZol jariskacebsa da generlebs hqondaT SesaZlebloba saqmeSi enaxaT ~didi masena~.


SesaZlebelia masena dafaruli iyo napoleonis CrdiliT, magram rom ara masena, savsebiT SesaZlebelia rom ar Seqmniliyo napoleonis imperia da safrangeTis revoluciac ki; miT umetes ar dRis sinaTles ver naxavda yovelive is, rasac revolucia warmoadgenda - Tavisufleba, Zmoba da Tanasworoba ! 


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